Growth hormone is a peptide hormone which stimulates development, growth, and regeneration. The peptide hormone is made up of 191 amino acids that make a lengthy single chain polypeptide. The growth hormone is synthesized in somatotropic cells that are found in the anterior pituitary gland as these cells also store and release the hormone.
Types of growth hormone
- Somatropin is the synthetic form of growth hormone which is synthesized by using recombinant DNA technologies.
- Somatotropin is the other name of growth hormone that is formed naturally in animals.
Functions and uses
The growth hormone is utilized widely in medicines that heal the growth disorders in children and hormone deficiency in adults. The growth hormone enhances growth in adolescents and children. It also contributes to regulating bodily fluids, fat metabolism, sugar and even heart function.
As per certain studies, the growth hormone could reduce body fat while it increases bone density and muscle mass. The energy levels raise consequently along with improved skin tone and bone density. Due to these properties, the growth hormone is utilized by sports players and hence banned by NCAA and IOC.
Regulation of release and secretion
The formation of growth hormone is regulated by the releasing hormone called somatocrinin along with inhibiting hormone called somatostatin which is released by the neurosecretory nuclei of the hypothalamus. These regulating hormones are liberated in the hypophysial portal blood that surmounts the pituitary. The release of a hormone in the pituitary is monitored by these two hormones that are affected by many external inhibitory factors.
Various factors stimulate the release of growth hormone like:
- Ghrelin acts by linking to GHSR (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptors).
- The growth hormone releasing hormone acts by linking to GHRHR (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Receptor).
- Sex hormones like estrogen and androgens stimulate the secretion of growth hormone at the time of puberty.
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