Organ and tissue-specific manifestations refer to certain organs, tissues, or cells where the microorganisms affect a person’s body. When microbes affect the entire organ, such as lungs or kidneys, it is known as organ-specific manifestation. When the entire tissue is affected by the microbes, it is called a tissue-specific manifestation.
The microorganisms that enter the body, travel to a specific organ and multiply there. Different microbes house in different parts of the body. For instance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacteria that causes tuberculosis. It usually enters the body through the nose and migrates to the lungs. Other disease-causing bacteria such as the Salmonella enter through the mouth (through consumption of infected food or water) and travels to the gut lining.
However, there are a few infectious agents that go to a particular organ and then spread throughout the body. The HIV virus enters the body through sexual organs and spreads throughout the body. The malarial parasite enters the liver and spreads to the red blood cells. The signs and symptoms of disease thus depend upon the tissue or organ it targets. If we know the target tissue or organ, a slight disturbance in the normal functioning of that area indicates the onset of a disease.
The immune system is also activated in response to the infections. The microorganisms enter into the tissues and damage it. The immune system reacts to the disease-causing microbes and destroys them. This is known as inflammation. The severity of disease manifestations depends upon the number of microbes in the body. The immune system keeps a check on the number of microbes in the body. When the immune system is damaged due to a deadly virus like HIV, the body can no longer fight the infections and the patient does not survive for long.
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