Organisms And The Surroundings Where They Live

Every entity has an ecosystem in which it lives. This constitutes its natural habitat and the basic necessities required for survival. Basic necessities include food, shelter, availability of land, and mates.

Why Is Adaptation Necessary?

Every organism has features which enable them to survive in unfavourable environments. This occurs naturally and it is called adaptation. It differs depending upon the place an organism lives. The place where an organism dwells is called as habitat.

For example, the natural habitat of fish is water. This habitat provides them with food, shelter, air and water. Other animals and plants can co-exist in the same habitat.

Living entities in a habitat are called biotic components. Example: Habitat can have animals and plants as their biotic components. Non-living entities in a habitat are called abiotic components. Example: Rocks, soil, water etc.

Adaptation is brought about by a change in an organism’s body or activities to survive. Some animals adapt to severe climatic conditions such as polar bears and penguins in polar regions, while some animals bring about structural adaptations, for example, birds modify their limbs into wings for flight, fish use gills to breathe in water. These adaptations are necessary for the functioning of living organisms, where survival of the fittest plays a major role.

A habitat in which animals live, is usually accompanied by the flora. The animal ecosystem, in particular, can be very challenging as animals become both predators and prey in the food chain. Some animals are known to use camouflage, this adaptation enables to protect themselves from predators.

Terrestrial habitats have both plants and animals living on land. Example: Forests, deserts, while aquatic habitats have animals and plants living in water. Example: Rivers, lakes, oceans.

How Are Organisms Classified?

Organisms are classified depending upon different characteristics. Grouping makes it easier for scientists to study. Hence, they are grouped into 7 levels, namely:

  1. Kingdom
  2. Phylum
  3. Classes
  4. Order
  5. Families
  6. Genus
  7. Species

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