Three Locally Available Common Flowering Plants - Study And Description

Aim Of The Experiment

To study and describe the three locally available common flowering plants one from each of the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae(Poaceae, Asteraceae or Brassicaceae can be substituted for specific geographical location) along with dissection and exhibition of floral whorls, anther and ovary to show the number of chambers through floral whorls and diagrams, types of roots (tap and adventitious), stem(woods and herbaceous) and leaf(shape, arrangement, venation, compound and shape).

Family – Solanaceae

This family is referred to as the Nightshade family.

Petunia nyctanginifolia

Habitat Grown an ornamental herb, Annual.
Root The root is branched. Tap-root system is observed
Stem Branched, aerial, solid, green, erect, herbaceous, cylindrical, hairy
Leaf Consecutive in basal part and opposing decussate in the upper part, simple, cauline and Ramal, sessile, stipulate, acute, ovate, hairy, entire, unicostate, reticulate.
Inflorescence Axillary dichasial cyme, Cymose.
Flower Hypogynous, pedicellate, bracteate, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, regular, pentamerous, complete, cyclic, white or light violet in colour.
Calyx 5 sepals, deeply lobes, green, gamosepalous, inferior, hairy, persistent
Corolla 5 petals, white or light violet in colour, infundibuliform, valvate, gamopetalous, induplicate, inferior, pentafid
Gynoecium 2 carpels (bicarpellary), superior, many ovules in each locule, stigma capitate, placenta swollen, syncarpous, bilocular, style long
Androecium 5 stamens, epipetalous, polyandrous, filaments unequal, basifixed, introse
Fruit Capsule
Floral formula Br, ⊕⚥ K(5),C\(\overline{(5A)}\)5, G(2)

Family – Papilionaceae (Fabaceae) Pea family

Pisum sativum

Habitat Cultivated, annual herb
Root Presence of root nodules, branched, tap.
Stem Smooth, glaucous, cylindrical, weak, herbaceous, branched, climb with the help of leaf tendrils.
Leaf Compound, Cauline and Ramal, alternate, stipulate, imparipinnate, terminal leaflet forms a tendril, leaflets 4 to 6.
Inflorescence Solitary arrangement of flowers or axillary racemes, racemose
Flower White or pink, complete, zygomorphic, irregular, bracteate, pedicellate, hermaphrodite, papilionaceous, hypogynous
Calyx Imbricate, 5 sepals, campanulate, gamosepalous
Corolla White/pink, 5 petals (1 standard, 2 wings, 2 keels united, keels shorter than wings), Corolla papilionaceous, enclosed pistil and stamens, imbricate.
Gynoecium 1 carpel, ovary superior, ovules many style bent and long, terminal, ovary hairy, stigma simple, unilocular, marginal placentation
Androecium 10 stamens in 2 bundles (diadelphous–9+1–9 mixed at the base for the formation of a tube around the ovary, 1 is free), basifixed, dehiscence by longitudinal cleave, anthers bilobed
Seeds Ground, uniform
Fruit A legume (pod)
Floral formula % ⊕⚥ K(5),C1 +2 +(2), A(9) +1, G1

Family – Liliaceae (Lily family)

Allium cepa

Habitat Cultivated, Herbs.
Root The root is fibrous.
Stem The stem is underground. Altered to disc-like and found enclosed by scale leaves to form a bulb.
Leaf The leaves are simple.
Inflorescence leaflets scape or Terminal umbel

(The young inflorescence can be surrounded by 2-3 membranous bract)

Flower White in colour, complete, pedicellate, actinomorphic, bracteate, hermaphrodite, hypogynous
Perianths Imbricate, gamophyllous, 6 lobed, arranged in 2 whorls of 3 each
Gynoecium Style short, tricarpellary, axile plantation, Superior ovary, stigma small, trilocular, 2 ovules/locule, syncarpous
Androecium Polyandrous, anthers, 6 stamens arranged in 2 whorls of 3 each, epiphyllous, long, dorsifixed, introse
Seeds Seeds are albuminous.
Fruit Capsule/Berry/
Floral formula ⊕⚥P3+3A3+3G(3) or P(3+3)

Viva Questions

Q.1. Define a flower.

A.1. For sexual reproduction in plants, a flower is a modified shoot in flowering plants.

Q.2. Typically, how many whorls does a flower possess?

A.2. Usually, a flower has four whorls.

Q.3. Name the four whorls of a flower.

A.3. The four whorls of a flower are:

  • Corolla
  • Calyx
  • Androecium
  • Gynoecium

Q.4. Name the essential whorls of a flower.

A.4. They are Gynoecium and Androecium.

Q.5. Define a complete flower.

A.5. A complete flower is a flower having all the four whorls.

Q.6. State the characteristics of a pea flower.

A.6. A pea plant is papilionaceous – 1 standard, two wings, two united keels.

Q.7. List ant two plants similar to Petunia.

A.7. The two plants similar to petunia are:

 

  • Potato – Solanum tubersum
  • Brinjal – S.melongena

Q.8. Name the inflorescence found in Petunia.

A.8. The type of inflorescence is cymose.

Q.9. What type of flower does Allium produce?

A.9. White in colour, hermaphrodite, complete, pedicellate, bracteate, actinomorphic, hypogynous.

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