Vector Borne Diseases

What is a Vector-borne disease?

Vector Borne diseases are the illness caused by the vectors. A vector is a carrier of the causative microbe for various diseases such as mosquitoes, ticks and fleas. The reproduction rates of vectors are influenced by climate and weather. Such diseases are widespread and found throughout the world.

More than 700,000 patients die of vector-borne diseases. The major vector-borne diseases constitute about 17% of the infectious diseases in the world. The poorest populations of the tropical and the sub-tropical regions are highly affected by such diseases. Malaria is perhaps the best-known vector-borne diseases in the world. Let us have a look at the different vectors and the diseases spread by them.

Also read: Diseases

Types of Disease Vectors

Vectors Diseases Causative Organisms
Mosquitos Chikungunya

Dengue

Zika fever

Yellow fever

Filariasis

Rift Valley fever

Malaria

West Nile fever

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)

Dengue virus (DENV)

Zika virus

Yellow fever virus

Filarioidea

Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV)

Plasmodium

West Nile Virus

Sandflies Leishmaniasis

Phlebotomus fever

Leishmania

Phlebovirus

Ticks Lyme disease

Tick-borne encephalitis

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

Relapsing fever

Rickettsial disease

Tularaemia

Borrelia burgdorferi

Flavivirus Tick-borne encephalitis virus

Orthonairovirus

Borrelia

Rickettsia

Francisella tularensis

Tse-tse Flies African trypanosomiasis Trypanosoma brucei
Lice Typhus

Louse-borne relapsing fever

Rickettsia prowazekii

Borrelia recurrentis

Vector-borne Diseases in India

Around 2 million malaria cases are recorded every year in India. Most of the rural areas in the country are prone to Malaria. The regions of Orrisa, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Chattisgarh have many cases of malaria every year. The World Bank Supported Vector-borne disease Control Project to be implemented in most of the endemic states. It will help the Government to prevent and treat malaria in the poorest regions. This project uses advanced technologies and medicines for the prevention of Malaria.

Prevention of Vector-borne Diseases

Vector-Borne diseases can be prevented in the following ways:

  • Vaccines should be developed for protection against disease-causing viruses.

  • Insect repellants such as DEET or Permethrin can be applied to the skin and clothes respectively.

  • Tick checks should be performed after exposure to dogs, cats, cattle, and mice.

  • Use nets while sleeping to protect against mosquitoes.

  • Wash and dry clothes after an outdoor visit for a long time.

  • Remove leaf litters and woodpiles from the surroundings.

  • Do not let stagnant water accumulate in the surroundings.

  • Use disinfectants to control infections caused by pests.

Important Questions

Q.1. What is a vector?

A.1. A vector is any pathogen that carries and transmits any infectious agent into other living organisms. These vectors may be parasites or other microbes.

Q.2. Name the most common vector-borne diseases.

A.2. Malaria and Dengue fever are the two most common vector-borne diseases.

Q.3. Name the diseases spread by vectors.

A.3. The diseases spread by vectors are:

Malaria, dengue, zika fever, yellow fever, rickettsial disease, Leishmaniasis, Trypanosomiasis, filariasis, etc.

Q.4. What is a vector control drive for mosquitoes?

A.4. Mosquitoes can be controlled by:

  • Reducing the number of breeding sites

  • Remove algae from the ponds

  • Use a mosquito repellent

For more information on Vector-borne Diseases, visit BYJU’S website or go to BYJU’S app.

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