Flowers are the most beautiful part of plants. They play a significant role in the reproduction of plants. Plants produce seeds for reproduction through flowers. In general, there are two parts of a flower:
- Reproductive parts of a flower (Androecium and Gynoecium)
- Non-reproductive parts of a flower (Calyx and Corolla)
Parts of a Flower:
- Corolla: It is the most colorful and bright part of the flower which attracts humans and pollinators. In general, it is thin and soft in structure. Multiple numbers of petals are there in a single flower having the same kind of color and texture. They protect the pistil and stamen of a flower.
- Calyx: It is the outermost whorl of the flower. It is usually made up of sepals which are commonly green and have leaf-like structure. It gives support to the petals and protects the bud before opening.
- Androecium: The next important whorl is androecium that includes stamens. Stamen is the male reproductive part of a flower that is made up of anther and filament. A filament is a long stalk that contains anther at the top. Anther produces pollen which is considered as the male reproductive cell. The number of filaments is equal to the number of petals in a flower.
- Gynoecium: It is the innermost whorl, that includes the female reproductive part of the flower, mainly carpels. Carpel can be divided into three sections:
- Stigma: The top most part of the carpel has a platform like structure called as the stigma. It is a sticky portion where pollen grains fall, attach to the surface and germinate.
- Ovary: The bottom part of the carpel is an ovary. It contains ovules in it. It also contains seeds which turn into fruit after the fertilization process.
- Style: The connecting part of the stigma and the ovary is style. It is the female part of the flower, and it has a long tube-like structure.
An ovary contains one or more than one ovules. The egg cell is stored inside the ovule. When sperm cell enters inside the ovary due to pollination, it fuses with the egg cell. This process is known as fertilization, and the ovule grows into a seed. Slowly, the ovary grows into a fruit to protect its seed.