The AITUC full form is the All India Trade Union Congress. It is the first Central Trade Union of India and the second largest trade union federation in India after the Indian National Trade union Congress.
Since AITUC has been in the news recently, it is important from a competitive exams point of view. Questions based on AITUC can be framed under the general awareness section of various Government exams.
AITUC – Why in the News?
The All India Trade Union Congress completed its 101 years of formation on October 31st 2020. This article aims to upkeep candidates with the relevant information about the AITUC, its formation, background, governing body and more.
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All India Trade Union Congress
Before knowing about the AITUC it is imperative to understand the trade unions and labour union first.
What are Trade Unions?
Trade unions are organised associations of workers in a trade or profession. These are interested in the economic and social welfare of the workers and are formed to further their rights and interests. In India, Trade Unions in India are registered under the Trade Union Act (1926).
Know about the Indian National Congress Session.
- The All India Trade union Congress is the oldest trade union federations in India.
- Since its inception when unions became organised on party lines, AITUC was the primary trade union organisation in India working under the Indian National Congress. Know about the establishment of Indian National Congress on the linked article
- Since 1945, the All India Trade Union Congress has been politically associated with the Communist Party of India.
- In the aftermath of the Second World War the AITUC played a significant role in the foundation of the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU).
- AITUC is governed by a body headed by National President Ramendra Kumar and General Secretary Amarjeet Kaur, both politicians affiliated with Communist Party of India.
Know more about the World Federation of Trade Unions on the given link.
The table below shows the important facts associated with AITUC-
|AITUC- All India Trade Union Congress|
|AITUC formation year and place||October 31st 1920 in Bombay|
|AITUC founded by||Lala Lajpat Rai|
|AITUC was formed under||Indian National Congress|
|AITUC politically linked||Communist Party of India (since 1945 to present)|
|AITUC member (present)||Approximately 2.7 million|
|Governed by (present)||President – Ramendra Kumar
General secretary – Amarjeet Kaur
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- The beginning of the labour upsurge against oppression and exploitation dates back to the second half of the nineteenth century, during the British Raj in India, with the emergence of a class of casual general labour. Know about, Impact of British rule in India.
- Shattering of the self-sufficient village economy with no new structures in place and the dumping of cheap industrial goods that turned millions into landless labourers like artisans, spinners, weavers, craftsmen, smelters, smiths, potters, etc., who could no longer live on agriculture. All these led to Poverty-stricken peasantry and landless labour forces.
- The widespread famines in India through the period from 1850 to 1890 resulting in deaths of several lakhs and also reducing millions as beggars.
- This background did help the 1857 revolt by princely states and the common masses against the disempowering policies of British rule.
- From 1905 onwards there was a notable advance in the working class actions. A strike took place in Bombay against the extension of working hours.
- Another great event that led to the formation of AITUC was strike by industrial workers of Bombay from July 24 to 28, 1908, in protest against the pronouncement of judgment sentencing six years imprisonment to freedom fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
- The October Revolution in 1917 in Russia during the First World War was a great impetus for the Indian labour movement as the working class along with peasantry captured power for the first time in the history of mankind.
- Strikes in India during the period was also a stimulus for the formation of AITUC. In 1918 a great strike in cotton mills of Bombay started and soon it spread to other areas. The strike against the Rowlatt Act had a great impact on the national struggle itself. Read about Indian Freedom Struggle List for relevant information.
It was in this heroic background that the preparations began on July 16, 1920, when a convention was held in Bombay which decided to hold “All India Trade Union Congress in Bombay”.
Formation of AITUC – All India Trade Union Congress
- The founding conference or the first session of AITUC began on October 31st 1920, in Empire Theatre Bombay with Lala Lajpat Rai as the founding President.
- Other leaders who participated were – Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, V. V. Giri, Sarojini Naidu, C.R. Das, Jawarharlal Nehru, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant, V.J. Patel, B.P. Wadia, Joseph Baptista, Lalubhai Samaldas, Jamnadas, Dwarka Das, B W Wadia, R R Karandikar, Col. J.C. Wedgwood.
Know about the prominent personalities who were the part of AITUC from the given links-
|Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose||V V Giri||Sarojini Naidu|
|Chitranjan Das||Jawahar Lal Nehru||Annie Beasant|
AITUC in its second session in 1921 in Jharia had adopted a resolution of Swaraj (Complete independence from British rule), almost eight years before the platform of freedom struggle- the Indian National Congress adopted such resolution in 1929.
The table below highlights various national conferences of AITUC –
|AITUC – National Conferences|
|National Conference||Year||Place||President||General Secretary|
|1st||31 Oct 1920||Bombay||Lala Lajpat Rai||V.M. Pawar|
|2nd||30 Nov-2 Dec 1921||Jharia||Joseph Baptista||Diwan Chamanlal|
|3rd||24-26 March 1923||Lahore||C.R. Das||Diwan Chamanlal|
|4th||30-31 March 1924||Calcutta||D.R. Thengdi||F.J. Ginwala/ E.N.C. Sen|
|5th||14-15 Feb 1925||Bombay||C.F. Andrews||F.J. Ginwala/ N.M. Joshi|
|6th||9-10 Jan 1926||Madras||Rai Sahib/C. Prasad||N.M. Joshi|
|7th||12-13 March 1927||Delhi||Diwan Chamanlal||N.M. Joshi|
|8th||26-28 Nov 1927||Kanpur||C.F. Andrews||N.M. Joshi|
|9th||18-20 Dec 1928||Jharia||Jawaharlal Nehru||N.M. Joshi|
|10th||28 Nov-1 Dec 1929||Nagpur||Subhash Chandra Bose||S.V. Deshpande|
|11th||4-7 July 1931||Calcutta||R.S. Ruikar||Mukundlal Sircar|
|12th||10-12 Sept 1932||Madras||G.L. Khandelkar||Mukundlal Sircar|
|13th||23-24 Dec 1933||Kanpur||Hariharnath Shastri||Shibnath Banerji|
|14th||19-21 Apr 1935||Calcutta||R.S. Ruikar||R.A. Khedgikar|
|15th||17-18 May 1936||Bombay||Shibnath Banerji||Maniben Kara|
|16th||1-7 Jan 1938||Delhi||Dr Suresh Chandra Banerjee||B.K. Mukherjee|
|17th||17 Apr 1938||Nagpur||Dr Suresh Chandra Banerjee||R.R. Bakhale|
|18th||28-30 Sept 1940||Bombay||V.R.Kalappa||N.M. Joshi|
|19th||8-9 Feb 1942||Kanpur||V. V. Giri||N.M. Joshi|
|20th||1-4 May 1943||Nagpur||S.A. Dange||N.M. Joshi|
|21th||18-23 Jan 1945||Madras||Mrinal Kanti Bose||N.M. Joshi|
|22th||13-19 Feb 1947||Calcutta||S.A. Dange||N.M. Joshi|
|23rd||27-30 May 1949||Bombay||S.A. Dange||N.M. Joshi|
|24th||27-30 May 1954||Calcutta||V. Chakkaria Chettiar||S.A. Dange|
|25th||25-29 Dec 1957||Ernakulam||S.S. Mirajkar||S.A. Dange|
|26th||6-12 Jan 1961||Coimbatore||S.S. Mirajkar||S.A. Dange|
|27th||16-22 May 1966||Bombay||S.S. Mirajkar||S.A. Dange|
|28th||28 Jan-1 Feb 1970||Guntur||S.S. Mirajkar||S.A. Dange|
|29th||30 Jan-4 Feb 1973||Calcutta||Dr. Ranen Sen||S.A. Dange|
|30th||13-17 Oct 1976||Jamshedpur||S.A. Dange||K.G.Srivastava|
|31st||26-31 Oct 1980||Visakhapatnam||S.A. Dange||Indarajit Gupta|
|32nd||15-20 Dec 1983||Bangalore||Chaturanan Mishra||Indarajit Gupta|
|33rd||15-20 Dec 1986||Vadodara||Chaturanan Mishra||Indarajit Gupta|
|34th||7-12 Aug 1990||Madras||M.S. Krishnan||Homi Daji|
|35th||11-15 March 1994||Patna||M.S. Krishnan||A.B. Bardhan|
|36th||16-20 Oct 1997||Amritsar||J. Chittarnjan||K.L. Mahendra|
|37th||19-23 Dec 2001||Hyderabad||J. Chittarnjan||Gurudas Das Gupta|
|38th||26-30 Nov 2005||Delhi||Pramode Gogoi||Gurudas Das Gupta|
|39th||29 Nov-5 Dec 2008||Thiruvananthapuram||Pramode Gogoi||Gurudas Das Gupta|
|40th||27-30 Nov 2012||Mumbai||Ramendra Kumar||Gurudas Das Gupta|
|41th||25-28 Feb 2016||Coimbatore||Ramendra Kumar||Gurudas Das Gupta|
|Mid-Term||11 December 2017||Ranchi, Jharkhand||Ramendra Kumar||Amarjeet Kaur|
Reference – Wikipedia [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All_India_Trade_Union_Congress]
The information on AITUC – All India Trade union Congress is important for UPSC aspirants because questions on the same can be asked in UPSC Prelims as well as in UPSC Mains GS I. Aspirants preparing for the UPSC exam can check the links given below –
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