The population has reached its peak especially in a country like India. The population explosion has led to a greater demand for the basic requirements such food, shelter, clothing, etc. To meet the increasing requirements and demands, we need to apply a greater effort. One such effort to meet food demand is animal husbandry. Animal husbandry includes cattle farming, poultry farming, fisheries, apiculture, etc. Here we will learn about poultry farming.
Animal husbandry is the science of farming of animal livestock. It includes caring, breeding and management of livestock. Animal husbandry is a large scale business where animals that provide us food are reared, bred, sheltered and cared in a farm or regions which are specially built for them. Animal husbandry was initiated with cattle farming. Under the cattle farming, livestock such as cows, goats, buffalo, sheep, etc. are reared. Later, animal husbandry was even extended to poultry farming, fisheries, apiculture, etc. And this extends a helping hand to the increasing needs of the generations.
Poultry farming is a farming method where domestic fowl are raised. In poultry farming, rearing, and management of fowls are done for two purposes- one for egg production and another for meat/flesh. In order to meet the quantity and quality requirements, a variety of strains (breeds) are raised. These improved strains include layers which produce eggs and broilers that provide meat.
Since poultry farming is a profit making business, its primary focus is on maximum production in less expenditure. For this reason, cross-breeding of local and foreign breeds was started. Cross-breeding aims for raising breeds with desirable traits. For example, Indian Aseel/Asil and foreign Leghorn breeds were bred to raise variety breeds.
Cross breeding in poultry farming helped to meet the commercial purpose and management easily. They focused on:
- Quantity and quality of chicks
- Dwarf broiler parents for more chick production
- Adaptation/tolerance to high temperature
- Low maintenance and minimum feeding requirements
Poultry farming involves both egg layers and broilers. The housing, feeding and growing conditions for broilers and egg layers are different. For high yield, good management practices are required.
Poultry birds are needed to be maintained in a strictly hygienic manner with proper housing. A good and clean environment with proper ventilation should be provided. The farm should be disease and pest free. Layers require regular temperature.
Poultry farming involves both egg layers and broilers. Both these group have different food requirements according to their farming purposes.
Since broilers are raised for meat, they are fed with protein and fat rich food. Vitamin supplementary helps them for good growth rate. They are regularly checked and good care is taken to avoid death and diseases. Egg layer’s rations are rich in vitamins A and K which help in more egg production.
For successful poultry farming, a disease-free condition is strict. Fowls are vulnerable to numerous diseases. The cause of the disease may be virus, bacteria, fungus, or even deficiency of nutrition. Hence, regular and proper cleaning, sanitation, spraying of pesticides and disinfectants should be done. Vaccinations help to prevent the chance of occurrence and spreading of infections.
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