The population has reached its peak especially in a country like India. The population explosion has led to a greater demand for basic requirements such as food, shelter, clothing, etc. To meet the increasing requirements and demands, we need to apply a greater effort. One such effort to meet food demand is animal husbandry. Animal husbandry includes cattle farming, poultry farming, fisheries, apiculture, etc.
Animal husbandry is the science of farming of animal livestock. It includes caring, breeding and management of livestock. Animal husbandry is a large scale business where animals that provide us food are reared, bred, sheltered and cared in a farm or regions which are specially built for them.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture and organic farming concerned with the management, raise and care of farm animals by humans. It is initiated with cattle farming livestock such as cows, goats, buffalo, sheep, etc. are reared. Later, animal husbandry was extended to cattle farming, poultry farming, productions of egg and broiler, apiculture, fisheries, etc.
Here, let us know more in detail about Poultry farming and its management.
Poultry farming mainly refers to growing and protecting various types of domestic birds commercially. In poultry farming, rearing, and management of fowls are done for two purposes-
- Production of the eggs.
- Production of meat or flesh.
In order to meet the quantity and quality requirements, a variety of strains (breeds) are raised. These improved strains include layers which produce eggs and broilers that provide meat.
Since poultry farming is a profit-making business, its primary focus is on maximum production in less expenditure. For this reason, cross-breeding of local and foreign breeds was started. Cross-breeding aims for raising breeds with desirable traits.
For example, Indian Aseel/Asil and foreign Leghorn breeds were bred to raise variety breeds.
Crossbreeding in poultry farming helped to meet the commercial purpose and management easily. They focused on:
- Quantity and quality of chicks
- Dwarf broiler parents for more chick production
- Adaptation/tolerance to high temperature
- Low maintenance and minimum feeding requirements
Poultry farming involves both egg layers and broilers. The housing, feeding and growing conditions for broilers and egg layers are different. For high yield, good management practices are required.
Poultry birds are needed to be maintained in a strictly hygienic manner with proper housing. A good and clean environment with proper ventilation should be provided. The farm should be disease and pest free. Layers require regular temperature.
Poultry farming involves both egg layers and broilers. Both these group have different food requirements according to their farming purposes.
Since broilers are raised for meat, they are fed with protein and fat rich food. Vitamin supplementary helps them for a good growth rate. They are regularly checked and good care is taken to avoid death and other infectious diseases. Egg layer’s rations are rich in vitamins A and K which help in more egg production.
For successful poultry farming, a disease-free condition is important. Fowls are vulnerable to numerous diseases. The cause of the disease may be from different modes of infections from virus, bacteria, fungus, and other agents, or even food deficiency or nutritional deficiency. Hence, regular and proper cleaning, sanitation, spraying of pesticides and disinfectants should be performed to keep the surroundings clean, tidy and also free from all microbes. Along with this, all domestic birds are vaccinated to control the disease and to increase in backyard birds. Vaccination is commonly used the biological preparation that helps in preventing the chance of occurrence and spreading of infections.
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