The population has reached its peak, especially in a country like India. The population explosion has led to a greater demand for basic requirements such as food, shelter, clothing, etc. To meet the increasing requirements and demands, we need to apply a greater effort. One such effort to meet food demand is animal husbandry. Animal husbandry includes cattle farming, poultry farming, fisheries, apiculture, etc.
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Animal Husbandry Meaning
“Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture that is concerned with the production and care of domestic animals.”
What Is Animal Husbandry?
Animal husbandry is the science of farming animal livestock. It includes caring, breeding and management of livestock. Animal husbandry is a large-scale business where animals that provide us food are reared, bred, sheltered and cared for in a farm or in regions which are specially built for them.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture and organic farming concerned with the management, raising and caring for farm animals by humans. It is initiated with cattle farming and rearing of livestock such as cows, goats, buffalo, sheep, etc. Later, animal husbandry was extended to cattle farming, poultry farming, production of egg and broiler, apiculture, fisheries, etc.
Here, let us know more in detail about Poultry farming and its management.
Also Read: Animal Husbandry
“Poultry farming mainly refers to growing and protecting various types of domestic birds commercially.”
What Is Poultry Farming?
In poultry farming, rearing and management of fowls are done for two purposes-
- Production of the eggs.
- Production of meat or flesh.
In order to meet the quantity and quality requirements, a variety of strains (breeds) are raised. These improved strains include layers which produce eggs and broilers that provide meat.
Since poultry farming is a profit-making business, its primary focus is on maximum production with less expenditure. For this reason, cross-breeding of local and foreign breeds was started. Cross-breeding aims for raising breeds with desirable traits.
For example, Indian Aseel/Asil and foreign Leghorn breeds were bred to raise variety of breeds.
Crossbreeding in poultry farming helped to meet the commercial purpose and management easily. They focused on:
- Quantity and quality of chicks
- Dwarf broiler parents for more chick production
- Adaptation/tolerance to high temperature
- Low maintenance and minimum feeding requirements
Poultry farming involves both egg layers and broilers. The housing, feeding and growing conditions for broilers and egg layers are different. For high yield, good management practices are required.
Poultry birds are needed to be maintained in a strictly hygienic manner with proper housing. A good and clean environment with proper ventilation should be provided. The farm should be disease and pest free. Layers require regular temperature.
Poultry farming involves both egg layers and broilers. Both these groups have different food requirements according to their farming purposes.
Since broilers are raised for meat, they are fed with protein and fat-rich food. Vitamin supplements help them for a good growth rate. They are regularly checked and good care is taken to avoid death and other infectious diseases. The egg layer’s rations are rich in vitamins A and K which help in more egg production.
For successful poultry farming, a disease-free condition is important. Fowls are vulnerable to numerous diseases. The cause of the disease may be from different modes of infections from viruses, bacteria, fungus, and other agents, or even food deficiency or nutritional deficiency. Hence, regular and proper cleaning, sanitation and spraying of pesticides and disinfectants should be performed to keep the surroundings clean, tidy and also free from all microbes. Along with this, all domestic birds are vaccinated to control the disease and to increase in backyard birds. Vaccination is commonly used a biological preparation that helps in preventing the chance of occurrence and spreading of infections.
Also Read: Fish Production
To know more about what is animal husbandry, its meaning, poultry farming, its management, and other related topics only @ BYJU’S Biology
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the importance of poultry farming?
Poultry farming is beneficial for the production of eggs and meat for commercial purposes. Millions of chickens are raised across the world as a good source of food in the form of eggs and meat.
What are the common diseases of poultry?
The common diseases of poultry include:
- Fowl cholera
- Necrotic enteritis
- Fowl typhoid