On this planet, there are different things which have been categorized into different groups and subgroups based on their features. Different scientists used various methods or schemes for classifying every living thing to understand the relationships between different organisms. There are many groups, including types of food we eat, the clothes we wear, sexes, ages, and a lot more.
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To make sense of complexity, we have categorized different types of environments found on Earth. Here, let us learn about the Biome and different Biomes of the World.
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What is a Biome?
A biome can be defined as a large biological community or an ecosystem where different types of living organisms including plants, animals, birds, insects, and humans are used to living in a certain type of climate. The world comprises a huge diversity of the types of environments which are divided and grouped into different types of biomes and are mainly based on the adaptations, range of temperature, weather, and climatic conditions.
The word “Biome” was suggested by an ecologist Frederic Edward Clements in the year 1916 which referred to the word biotic community.
Also Refer: Difference Between Biome And Ecosystem
Kinds of Biomes
There are various types of biomes, the exact number of biomes in this world is still not known and keep on varying. The biomes include- desserts, different types of forest, polar regions, national parks, bird sanctuaries, zoos, aquatic life and a lot more. Based on the certain similarities and to make the classification simpler, the biomes are main groups according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms.
Also Refer: Terrestrial habitat
The two different types of biomes are:
Terrestrial Biomes or Land Biomes
The terrestrial or the land biomes are categorized and termed according to the climatic conditions and the climax vegetation of the region in which they are found. The climax vegetation also called the biological community of plants, animals, birds and other living species that is stable and dominant after the numerous years of evolutionary development.
Since plants are an important source of nutrition and are the producers in the ecosystem, they determine the nature of the inhabiting animal population. Therefore, the climax vegetation governs the animal population.
Also Refer: Nutrition In Plants
The major types of terrestrial biomes in the world are as follows:
- Rain forest
- Polar region
- Tropical forest
- Taiga (Boreal Forest)
- Northern Conifer Forest
- Mediterranean scrub forest
- Temperate Deciduous Forest
Aquatic Biomes or Water Biomes
Water is the most important and essential element among the biological community. The total earth’s surface is covered by water which is nearly 70 to 80 per cent. Therefore, aquatic biomes are the largest and widest biome in the world. There are numerous species of aquatic plants and animals, both large and small. According to the taxonomy records, the marine habitats are older than the terrestrial habitats, as life originated in the oceans about billions of years ago.
Aquatic biomes are the most stable ecosystems on this planet and with the absence of water, most of the life forms would be unable to sustain themselves and the Earth would be a lifeless and desert-like place.
Even though the water temperature varies, the aquatic areas tend to be more humid and the temperature of the air on the cooler side. This water biome mainly comprises aquatic plants and animals.
The aquatic biome provides a vast array of habitats, which support a staggering diversity of species. Scientists believe that they form the basis of aquatic food webs and contribute between 70 to 85 per cent of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere.
Also Refer to- Aquatic Ecosystem
As much as 80 to 85 per cent of the atmospheric oxygen and the food and production (photosynthesis) takes place in water. There are two major types of aquatic biomes in the world:
- Marine biomes
- Freshwater biomes
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