The mystery of genetics was solved with the investigations of Gregor Johann Mendel. He was the first person who discovered the basic principles of heredity during the mid-nineteenth century. Hence he is known as the father of modern genetics. He conducted experiments in his garden on pea plants and observed their pattern of inheritance from one generation to the next generation.
Pictured: Visualization of Dihybrid Square using a Punnett square
Gregor Mendel’s Experiment
Mendel laid the basic groundwork for the field of genetics and he eventually proposed the laws of inheritance: Law of Segregation, Law of Independent Assortment and Law of Dominance. These laws came into existence from his experiments on pea plants with a variety of traits.
Mendel first studied the inheritance of one gene in the plant through monohybrid cross. He considered only a single character (plant height) on pairs of pea plants with one contrasting trait. Later, he studied the inheritance of two genes in the plant through dihybrid cross.
Mendel studied the following seven characters with contrasting traits:
- Stem height: Tall/dwarf
- Seed shape: Round/wrinkled
- Seed color: Yellow/green
- Pod color: Green/yellow
- Pod shape: Inflated/constricted
- Flower color: Violet/white
- Flower position: Axial/terminal
Read more: Genes
A dihybrid cross is a breeding experiment between two organisms which are identically hybrid for two traits. In other words, a dihybrid cross is a cross between two organisms, with both being heterozygous for two different traits.
Mendel took a pair of contradicting traits together for crossing; for example color and the shape of seeds at a time. He picked the wrinkled-green seed and round-yellow seed and crossed them. He obtained only round-yellow seeds in the F1 generation. This indicated that round shape and yellow color of seeds are dominant in nature. While the wrinkled shape and green color of seeds are recessive traits. Then, F1 progeny was self-pollinated. This resulted in four different combinations of seeds in the F2 generation. They were wrinkled-yellow, round-yellow, wrinkled-green seeds and round-green in the phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1.
During monohybrid crosses of these traits, he observed the same pattern of dominance and inheritance. The phenotypic ratio 3:1 of yellow and green color and of round and wrinkled seed shape during monohybrid cross was retained in dihybrid cross as well.
Consider “Y” for yellow seed color and “y” for green seed color, “R” for round shaped seeds and “r” for wrinkled seed shape. Thus, the parental genotype will be “YYRR” (yellow-round seeds) and “yyrr” (green-wrinkled seeds).
The dihybrid cross of both will give F1 progeny YyRr (yellow-round seeds) as shown in the figure above.
- Law Of Segregation And Dominance
- Law Of Independent Assortment
- Gene Mutation And Its Types
- Biogenetic Law
Important Questions for Dihybrid Cross
1. Who is known as the father of modern genetics?
Gregor Mendel is known as the father of modern genetics. He was awarded this honor for his experiments which laid the groundwork for genetics and inheritance.
2. What is an example of a Dihybrid cross?
Mendel’s experiment with peas is a classic example of a dihybrid cross. The experiment was done to highlight if any relationship exists between various pairs of alleles.
3. How to find the genotype of a Dihybrid cross?
- The first step would be to establish a parental cross (P).
- Next, make a 4×4 (or 16 square) Punnett Square for the chosen traits to be crossed.
- Ascertain the parents’ genotype and assign letters to represent the alleles – use lower case letters for recessive traits and upper case letters for dominant traits.
- Arrange the traits on the square – the logic is that recessive traits emerge only if both the parents have recessive traits. For example, if both the parents have the trait “f“, which is recessive, the emerging trait will be (“ff”). However, if one of the parents have “F“, then the resulting trait will be “Ff“, but never “fF“
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