Food Processing

Food Processing

Food Processing could be defined as the process of transforming food items into usable forms. It might include the processing of raw material through various chemical and physical process into food. Different activities involved in this process include cooking, mincing, liquefaction, canning, pickling, emulsification, and macerating.

Objectives of Food Processing

Food Technology is one of the known vast domains. It deals with the production process to make food. Food processing is done to achieve certain goals like the ones stated below:

  • To boost the shelf life of food articles.
  • To prevent contamination of food.
  • For transport and food storage.
  • To turn food products into the ones that appeal to customers.

There are certain criteria that have to be compiled for the apt processing of food, right from the possibility of a pest or a bacteria to invade and multiply on foods to the biological activity of foods.

Food Preservation

Food preservation is a process employed to prevent the growth of fungi, bacteria, and many other microorganisms. It involves the process of slowing down the oxidation of fats that would lead to rancidity. There are several food preservation methods that are designed specifically to preserve food. Some of the selected few preservation methods are stated below:

  • Drying

It is one of the traditional techniques that are employed to decompose food products. Exposure of food particles to sunlight to dry them is one such method done naturally. This process would result in the evaporation of moisture content from food thus preventing microorganisms from invading the food. Moisture from food could be removed also by using hot air

  • Cooling

It is a technique of preserving food by slowing down the growth of microorganisms and action of an enzyme that is responsible for rotting of food. Some of the food products such as meat, dairy products, and fish could be stored in a refrigerator thus increasing the shelf-life of the products.

  • Freezing

It is one of the regular processes that has been under use domestically and commercially to preserve a wide range of foods. Rapid freezing might have an adverse effect on the texture of food.

  • Heating

The majority of microorganisms and spores could be destroyed by applying sufficient heat to food items. One of the known examples includes boiling of milk.

  • Pickling

It is a process of preserving food in an edible and antimicrobial liquid. Pickling could be categorized into two types, namely fermentation and thermal pickling.

In fermentation pickling, bacteria present in a liquid produces organic agents which would act as preservation agents.

In chemical pickling, the food is preserved in an edible liquid that destroys microorganisms and bacteria.


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