Table of Contents

What are Protists?

Protists are simple eukaryotic organisms that are neither plants nor animals or fungi. Protists are unicellular in nature but can also be found as a colony of cells. Most protists live in water, damp terrestrial environments or even as parasites.

Kingdom Protista

Euglena, a eukaryotic protist

The term ‘Protista’ is derived from the Greek word “protistos”, meaning “the very first“.  These organisms are usually unicellular and the cell of these organisms contains a nucleus which is bound to the organelles. Some of them even possess structures that aid locomotion like flagella or cilia.

Scientists speculate that protists form a link between plants, animals and fungi as these three kingdoms diverged from a common protist-like ancestor, billions of years ago. Though this “protists-like” ancestor is a hypothetical organism, we can trace some genes found in modern animals and plants to these ancient organisms.

Therefore, these organisms are traditionally considered the first eukaryotic forms of life and a predecessor to plants, animals and fungi.

Detailed Insight: Eukaryotic Cells

Characteristics of Kingdom Protista

The primary feature of all protists is that they are eukaryotic organisms. This means that they have a membrane-enclosed nucleus. Other characteristic features of Kingdom Protista are as follows:

  1. These are usually aquatic, present in the soil or in areas with moisture.
  2. Most protist species are unicellular organisms, however, there are a few multicellular protists such as kelp. Some species of kelp grow so large that they exceed over 100 feet in height. (Giant Kelp).
  3. Just like any other eukaryote, the cells of these species have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
  4. They may be autotrophic or heterotrophic in nature. An autotrophic organism can create its own food and survive. A heterotrophic organism, on the other hand, has to derive nutrition from other organisms such as plants or animals to survive.
  5. Symbiosis is observed in the members of this class. For instance, kelp (seaweed) is a multicellular protist that provides otters, protection from predators amidst its thick kelp. In turn, the otters eat sea urchins that tend to feed on kelp.
  6. Parasitism is also observed in protists. Species such as Trypanosoma protozoa can cause sleeping sickness in humans.
  7. Protists exhibit locomotion through cilia and flagella. A few organisms belonging to the kingdom Protista have pseudopodia that help them to move.
  8. Protista reproduces by asexual means. The sexual method of reproduction is extremely rare and occurs only during times of stress.

Read more: Kingdom Protista

Classification of Protista

Kingdom Protista is classified into the following:


Protozoans are unicellular organisms. Historically, protozoans were called “animal” protists as they are heterotrophic and showed animal-like behaviours.

There are also parasitic protozoans which live in the cells of larger organisms. Most of the members do not have a predefined shape. For instance, an amoeba can change its shape indefinitely but a paramecium has a definite slipper-like shape. The most well-known examples of protozoans are amoeba, paramecium, and euglena. Unlike other members of this group, euglena is a free-living protozoan that has chlorophyll, which means it can make its own food.

The protozoans can be divided into four major groups:

  1. Amoeboid protozoans – Mostly found in water bodies, either fresh or saline. They have pseudopodia (false feet) which help to change their shape and to capture and engulf food. E.g. Amoeba.
  2. Flagellated protozoans – As the name suggests, the members of this group have flagella. They can be free-living as well as parasitic. E.g. Euglena.
  3. Ciliated protozoans – They have cilia all over their body which help in locomotion as well as nutrition. They are always aquatic. E.g. Paramecium.
  4. Sporozoans – These organisms are so-called because their life cycle has a spore-like stage. For example, the malarial parasite, Plasmodium.

Slime Moulds

Slime moulds are saprophytic organisms (they feed on dead and decaying matter). These are tiny organisms that have many nuclei.

Usually, Slime moulds are characterized by the presence of aggregates called plasmodium and are even visible to the naked eye.

Read more: Slime moulds

Chrysophytes, Dinoflagellates and Euglenoids

These form another category under kingdom Protista. These are generally single-celled or multicellular organisms. These are photosynthetic, found mostly in freshwater sources or marine lakes. They are characterized by a stiff cell wall.

Example of chrysophytes include diatoms and golden algae. They are characterised by the presence of a hard siliceous cell wall. Diatomaceous earth is formed due to the accumulation of cell wall deposits. They are photosynthetic organisms.

Dinoflagellates are photosynthetic and found in various different colours, according to the pigment present in them. They show bioluminescence and known to cause red tide.

Euglenoids are the link between plants and animals. They lack a cell wall but perform photosynthesis. In the absence of sunlight, they act as a heterotroph and feed on small organisms. The outer body covering is a protein-rich layer known as a pellicle. E.g. Euglena, Trachelomonas, etc.

Read more: Algae

Economic Importance of Protists

  • Protists serve as the foundation of the food chain.
  • Protists are symbionts – having a close relationship between two species in which, one is benefited.
  • Some protists also produce oxygen and may be used to produce biofuel.
  • Protists are the primary sources of food for many animals.
  • In some rare cases, Protists are harvested by humans for food and other industrial applications.
  • Phytoplankton is one of the sole food sources for whales
  • Seaweed is an alga, which is considered a plant-like protist.
  • Zooplankton is fed on by various sea creatures including shrimp and larval crabs.


Topics That May Interest You:

For more detailed information on kingdom Protista, or any other related topics, please explore BYJU’S Biology.

Frequently Asked Questions


What are Protists?

Protists include a vast collection of single-celled and multicellular organisms that have a nucleus. They also possess highly specialized cellular machinery called cell organelles that aid in performing various life processes. Most protists are free-living autotrophs (such as algae) while others are heterotrophic (Amoeba) or even parasitic (Trypanosoma protozoa).


State a few examples of Protists.

Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena Plasmodium, etc.


How are Protists classified?

Protists are broadly classified into 5 subdivisions based on their general characteristic features. They are classified as:

  • Chrysophytes
  • Dinoflagellates
  • Euglenoids
  • Slime moulds
  • Protozoans

Outline the characteristics of Kingdom Protista.

  • All protists are eukaryotic organisms. This means that they have a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other cell organelles.
  • Most protists are aquatic, others are found in moist and damp environments.
  • Most are unicellular, however, there are a few multicellular protists such as the giant kelp.
  • They may be autotrophic or heterotrophic in nature.
  • Parasitism is also observed in some protists.
  • Others exhibit symbiosis.

Are all Protists unicellular?

No, not all Protists are unicellular. Protists such as moulds and algae are multicellular, i.e., they are made up of more than one cell. Amoeba, paramecium and euglena are unicellular organisms belonging to kingdom Protista.

Test your knowledge on Protista


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  6. Very well explained.

  7. What is the economic importance of protista please explain

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  12. All doubts are clear of Protista.

  13. Why are the protista regarded as unicellular yet they are eukaryotic?

  14. What are the general characteristic of each subdivision of the Kingdom Protista?

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