The term solid waste management mainly refers to the complete process of collecting, treating and disposing of the solid wastes.
In the waste management process, the wastes are collected from different sources and are disposed of. This process includes the collection, transportation, treatment, analysis and disposing of. It needs to be monitored so that strict regulations and guidelines are followed.
Sources of Solid Wastes
- Solid domestic garbage.
- Solid waste material from various industries.
- Solid agricultural waste.
- Plastics, glass, metals, e-waste, etc.
- Medical waste.
- Construction waste, sewage sludge
The process of waste handling and disposal varies in different countries. In India, the processes differ according to the source of solid waste. They can be classified as:
⦁ Municipal Solid Waste.
⦁ Hazardous Solid Waste.
Municipal solid waste can further be divided into biodegradable, recyclable and hazardous domestic wastes. The biodegradable waste includes rotten food, vegetable peel and mostly wet kitchen waste. The recyclable waste includes plastic and the hazardous wastes include, bulb, batteries, etc.
The industry generated like chemical factories, medical waste from hospitals are considered as Hazardous Solid Waste and needs special settings to dispose them.
In any region, solid waste management is very important for the safe disposal of wastes and to reduce environmental pollution and avoid any health hazards that it may cause.
Landfills are the most common methods of disposing solid wastes. Modern-day landfills are designed by taking care of various environmental factors and types of wastes, so as to minimise pollution and health risks.
Effects of Poor Solid Waste Management
Due to improper disposal of solid waste particularly by waste management organizations, the collected wastes gets heap up and become a problem for both the environment and also for the public.
By dumping of huge garbage, drives biodegradable materials to decay and decompose under the abnormal, uncontrolled and unhygienic conditions. After a few days of decomposition, it becomes a breeding ground for different types of disease-causing insects as well as infectious organisms. A foul smell is produced and it also spoils the aesthetic value of the area.
The solid wastes collected from different industries include toxic metals, chemicals, and other hazardous wastes. When these wastes are released into the environment, it can produce biological and physicochemical problems to the environment, the chemicals may drain into the soil and pollute the groundwater and also alter the productivity of the soils in that particular area.
In rare cases, the hazardous wastes may get mixed up with the ordinary garbage and other combustible wastes causing the disposal process even harder and risky.
By burning the paper and other scraps along with the hazardous wastes, dioxins and poisonous gasses are produced and released into the air which results in causing various diseases including chronic disease, skin infections, cancer, etc.
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