To carry out appropriate tests to detect the presence of sugar(sucrose), starch, proteins, and fats in suitable animal and plant materials.
Nutrition is a source through which living entities obtain food for the body to get fueled with energy. Therefore the food we eat must be well-balanced with all the substances that are required by our body to perform daily activities, these substances are known as nutrients.
Nutrients nourish the body by releasing the energy required for the body’s growth. Some of the nutrients found in food are:
- Dietary fibers
What are proteins?
They are body-building nutrients which aid in the repair of damaged body parts and also in the growth of the body
What are vitamins and minerals?
These nutrients are reflected to be protective food. They protect us from diseases by providing resistance against germs that are known to cause diseases.
What are carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are nutrients that provide energy to the body instantly. Fats are also energy-giving foods and store energy.
Carbohydrates contain starch, sugars, and fibers which consists of sugar molecules containing hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Carbohydrates can be categorized into:
- Simple carbohydrates – They are composed of 1 or 2 units of sugar hence can be broken down and be absorbed easily. Simple carbohydrates are subdivided into:
- Monosaccharides – Composed of one sugar unit
- Disaccharides – Consists of 2 chemically-associated monosaccharide units. Example – Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose
- Complex carbohydrates – Consists of long chains of simple carbohydrate units. Since they are large in size they can be broken down into simple carbohydrates. They are further subdivided into
- Oligosaccharides – Composed of less than 10 monosaccharides parts
- Polysaccharides – Composed of a large number of polysaccharides. Example – Glycogen, starch, and cellulose
Test For Sucrose
The presence of sucrose can be tested in a sample using Benedict’s test.
- Benedict’s Reagent
- Sugarcane extract
- Concentrated HCl
- NaOH solution
- Test tube holder
- Add a few drops of concentrated HCl using a dropper to the test tube that contains sugarcane extract
- Bring the contents of the test tube to a boil for 2 minutes.
- Hold the test tube securely with the help of a test tube holder
- Hydrolysis of sucrose takes place into fructose and glucose
- With the help of a dropper, add a few drops of NaOH solution to the test tube so as the solution turns alkaline
- Perform Benedict’s test to the solution to detect the presence of glucose.
- Add a few drops of Benedict’s reagent with the help of a dropper into the test tube holding the sample
- Hold the test tube securely with the help of a test tube holder, bring the sample to a boil over a burner for a few minutes.
The color of the solution switches from blur color to green color. From green, the color is finally switched to brick red or orange. This indicates that the solution contains glucose.
Test For Starch
- Potato extract
- Iodine solution
- Add a few drops(5 drops) of iodine solution with the help of a dropper to the test tube that is holding potato extract
- Notice the color change
The presence of starch in the potato extract is indicated when the color changes to a blue-black color.
Test For Proteins
The presence of proteins in a sample can be detected by the following tests:
- Biuret Test
- Xanthoproteic Test
- Million’s Test
1. Biuret Test
- 1% CuSO4
- 40% NaOH solution
- Egg Albumin
- Test tube holder
- Add a few drops of 40% NaOH solution with the help of a dropper into the test tube contained in the egg albumin
- With the help of a dropper, add 2 to 3 drops of 1% CuSO4 solution to the test tube in the egg albumin
- Stir the solution in order to mix it completely
The solution in the test tube appears to be violet in color. This indicates that the sample that is tested contains proteins.
2. Xanthoproteic Test
- Ammonia solution
- Concentrated HNO3
- Egg albumin
- Test tube holder
- Add a few drops(5 drops) of concentrated HNO3 with the help of a dropper into the test tube contained in the egg albumin
- Holding the test tube securely with a test tube holder, bring the sample to a boil over a burner. The test tube appears to have yellow precipitate.
- Add a few drops of ammonia solution to the test tube containing the sample.
- Stir the solution in order to mix it completely.
The sample contained in the test tube which appeared to have yellow precipitate changes its color to orange. This indicates that the sample contains proteins.
3. Million’s Test
- Million’s Reagent
- Egg albumin
- With the help of a dropper, add a few drops of the Million’s reagent to the test tube holding egg albumin
- Let the sample remain for a while in the test tube. Observe the changes.
The sample indicates the presence of proteins when the color changes to pink.
Test For Fats
The presence of fats in a sample can be detected by the following tests:
- Sudan III Test
- Paper Spot Test
1. Sudan III Test
- Sudan III Solution
- Egg Albumin
- Add a few drops of the Sudan III reagent with the help of a dropper into the test tube contained in the egg albumin.
- Stir the solution completely
The presence of fat in the sample is indicated when pink color droplets appear in the test tube.
2. Paper Spot Test
- A piece of white paper
- Peanut seeds
- Watch glass
- From the watch glass, place the peanut seed on a white paper
- Crush the seeds and rub it on the white paper
The spot where the peanut seeds are rubbed turns translucent. This indicates the presence of fats in the sample.
Q.1. List examples of simple carbohydrates.
A.1. Simple carbohydrates are present in the form of fructose in fruits, in the form of lactose in milk and in the form of sucrose in table sugar.
Q.2. What are stachyose and raffinose?
A.2. They are examples of oligosaccharides and are categorized under complex carbohydrates.
Q.3. What are peptide linkages?
A.3. Proteins are made up of a large number of amino acids that are linked together by specific linkages known as peptide linkages. The amino acids comprise of both carboxylic acids and an amino group.
Q.4. What is the xanthoproteic test?
A.4. It is used to detect the presence of proteins that contain aromatic amino acid units.
The benzene ring present in the amino acid, upon heating, is nitrated to form a yellow nitro-compound. It switches to orange color with the presence of an alkali.
Q.5. What do fats contain?
A.5. They are complex molecules. Fats contain glycerol and fatty acids.
Q.6. What is Fehling’s Test used for?
A.6. It is used to detect the presence of aldehydes and reducing sugars. The Fehling’s solution is a deep blue colored solution. This test is performed with glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose.
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