Comprehension Solutions 01

1. D is the best answer. This question requires one to identify the primary concern of the passage as a whole. In the first paragraph, a recent hypothesis about the effects of caffeine on behavior was presented. The second paragraph describes an earlier and widely accepted hypothesis about how caffeine affects behavior and then presents evidence that is not consistent with that hypothesis. The third and fourth paragraphs return to the newer hypothesis introduced in the first paragraph and provide “evidence and arguments” that support this alternative hypothesis.

2. D is the best answer. The passage states that adenosine “depresses neuron firing” by binding to specific receptors on neuronal membranes, which in turn inhibits the release of neurotransmitters. The passage describes Snyder et al’s hypothesis about caffeine. They propose that caffeine binds to specific receptors on neuronal membranes, which prevents adenosine from binding to those receptors and “allows the neurons to fire more readily than they otherwise would”. Therefore, according to Snyder et al, caffeine differs from adenosine in that caffeine permits neurotransmitter release when it is bound to adenosine receptors, whereas adenosine inhibits neruotransmitter release.

3. A is the best answer. The effects of IBMX are discussed in the last paragraph of the passage. IBMX apparently binds to adenosine-specific receptors on neuronal membranes, but, in contrast to the other caffeine derivatives that Snyder et al experimented with, IBMX depresses rather than stimulates mouse locomotion. Snyder et al respond to this experimental result by stating that IBMX has “mixed effects in the brain, a not unusual occurrence with psychoactive drugs”.

4. E is the best answer. This question asks you to identify which compound, according to Snyder et al, does NOT bind to specific receptors in the brain. Phosphodiesterase, identified as an “enzyme that breaks down the chemical called cyclic AMP” is the only compound that is not identified as one that binds to specific receptors in the brain.

5. B is the best answer. This question asks you to identify information that is suggested rather than directly stated in the passage. To answer it, first look for the location in the passage of the information specified in the question. The A1 and A2 receptors are mentioned in the passage & it goes on to describe Snyder et al’s hypothesis about the effects of caffeine on behavior. They propose that caffeine, “which is structurally similar to adenosine,” is able to bind to A1 and A2 receptors in the brain, the same receptors that adenosine normally binds to. Thus, the passage suggests that the structural relationship between caffeine and adenosine may be partially responsible for caffeine’s ability to bind to A1 and A2 receptors.

6. B is the best answer. The first paragraph identifies two major problems faced by the archaeological profession: inadequate funding and illegal digging. The passage indicates that the author is going to suggest how to remedy both problems, thereby benefiting the archaeological profession. The author proceeds to propose allowing the sale of excavated artifacts and to explain how this would solve both problems . The author then supports the proposal by countering possible objections to it, and in the last paragraph explains how the proposal would curb illegal digging.Thus, the way information is organized in the passage indicates that the author’s purpose is to suggest that allowing the sale of excavated artifacts would provide funds for the archaeological profession and curb illegal digging.

7. E is the best answer. The question requires you to identify the answer choice that CANNOT be inferred from the passage. Nothing in the passage implies that duplicate artifacts exceed museum objects in quality.

8. E is the best answer. The disadvantages of storing artifacts in museum basements are discussed in the fifth paragraph. The passage states that “There is not enough money…to catalogue the finds” and declare that, as a result stored objects cannot be located.

9. A is the best answer. The author’s argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation appears in the passage where the author predicts that such official sale would reduce the demand for “the clandestine product.” The rhetorical question that follows indicates that the author finds it unlikely that any purchaser would prefer objects of unknown provenance to objects of known origin, or, to rephrase, the author assumes that most people would prefer to purchase objects of authenticated provenance, as this choice states.

10. C is the best answer. The author begins the third paragraph by saying “you might object…” in order to anticipate possible objections to the adoption of his proposal. In the next sentence the author asserts that “ancient artifacts…should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder”, acknowledging an opponent’s fear that individuals might be allowed to purchase objects that ought to be displayed in public institutions. This objection is paraphrased in this choice.

11. A is the best answer. The passage begins by indicating that the results of the SBA approach to aiding minority entrepreneurs “were disappointing” . The passage states that “MESBIC’s are now emerging as increasingly important financing sources for minority enterprises.” Much of the passage is devoted to supporting the author’s view that MESBIC’xhave the greater potential for success, and the last sentence in the passage confirms this view.

12. D is the best answer. In the second paragraph, the author describes the MESBIC approach as one in which “large corporations participate in the development of successful and stable minority businesses by making use of government-sponsored venture capital”. There is no indication in the passage that the SBA approach relies on the participation of large corporations.

13. C is the best answer. The author concludes that the results of the SBA approach “were disappointing”. Then he supports the conclusion by citing the fact that “Even 15 years after the program was implemented, minority business receipts were not quite two percent of the national economy’s total receipts”.

14. C is the best answer. This question asks you to draw an inference about the SBA program. Although the passage does not actually state that the failure rate for SBA recipient businesses was higher than anticipated, in the first paragraph the author does state that the results of the SBA program were disappointing, in part because of the high failure rate among SBA-sponsored businesses. From this it can be inferred that the anticipated failure rate was lower than the actual rate.

15. B is the best answer. The passage describes efforts undertaken in the 1960’s to and minority businesses and then describes MESBIC’s , a newer approach to such efforts.