A disease is a feeling of uneasiness caused in the body due to one or many factors depending upon the causative. It fluctuates the state of a person from normalcy to a state of discomfort either specific to a region or causes the entire body to feel fatigued. These are indicated by the body through subtle signs initially, which aggravate over a period of time causing fever, headache etc., depending upon the type of the medical condition. These signs are termed as symptoms which help an experienced physician in accurately identifying a disease or in other situations, diagnostic tests are carried out.
Bacteria, in some cases, is a pathogenic microbe. They cause serious diseases which are detected by a series of symptoms in the affected person.
Bacterial Diseases in Humans
Following are a few diseases caused by bacteria with their causes, symptoms, and necessary treatment to be carried out.
It is an infectious disease affecting the lungs severely. The bacteria that cause these diseases spread through vectors in the air, water etc. When an infected person sneezes or coughs, tiny droplets containing the bacteria is ejected out which can be transferred and can infect another person. It is suggested that there are two types of tuberculosis – the active and latent tuberculosis. Few of the early signs of Tuberculosis are – weakness, loss of weight and appetite, night sweats, fever, a persistent and severe cough lasting for more than 3-4 weeks, chest congestion.
Symptoms – It depends upon the area affected, usually the lungs. Latent TB has no symptoms. However, active TB can be indicated by fever and a severe cough. TB can spread to other vital organs of the body such as brain, liver, kidneys, heart etc.
Causes – Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Treatment – Usually antibiotics are prescribed depending upon the type.
Latent TB – Isoniazid, Rifampin, Isoniazid and rifapentine
Active TB – Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide, Isoniazid, Rifampin
It is a serious illness affecting the lungs which can be fatal too.
Symptoms – Cold, flu, high fever, chills, cough with sputum, shortening of breath,
pleuritic pain, weakness, fatigue, fluctuation in the heart rate, diarrhoea, nausea,
vomiting, muscle pain etc
Causes – Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila,
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Treatment – Depends on the type of pneumonia. When caused by bacteria, antibiotics
are used as treatment.
It is an infection of the intestine which is usually spread through contaminated water or
air. It is an acute diarrhoeal sickness caused by the infection of the intestine.
Symptoms – Severe diarrhoea and vomiting, nausea, weakness, electrolyte imbalance,
dehydration, muscle cramps.
Causes – Vibrio cholerae
Treatment – Rehydration therapy, antibiotics, intravenous fluids, zinc supplements.
It is the inflammation of the spinal cord and the brain. Bacterial meningitis can be fatal and spreads when in contact with the infected person. It can cause severe brain damage. The bacteria enters into the bloodstream through the ear, throat, sinuses etc.
Symptoms – Stiff neck, fever, headache, muscle pain, light sensitivity, confusion, rashes, nausea etc
Causes – Neisseria meningitidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Treatment – Corticosteroids, antibiotics, sedatives, paracetamol, oxygen therapy, fluids.
It is a common bacterial infection that causes gastrointestinal issues and high fever. It enters through the mouth and stays within the intestine for more than 2 weeks and eventually makes its way into the bloodstream. It cannot be spread by animals and hence spreads from person to person. It spreads between humans through direct contact with the faecal matter of the infected person. Through the bloodstream, it gradually enters the tissues and organs of the body. It may live in the cells of the host hence the immune system can fail to eliminate it from the body.
Symptoms – High fever, Weakness, headaches, diarrhoea, constipation, vomiting, abdominal pain
Causes – Salmonella typhi
Treatment – Fluids, Antibiotics – Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin
Frequently Asked Questions
1. List any 2 gram-negative bacteria along with one infection they cause?
E.coli causes food poisoning and gastroenteritis. Klebsiella causes meningitis
2. In plants, how can bacterial infections spread?
Bacteria survive in different parts of the plant such as crop debris, soil, weeds, seeds etc where weeds serve as reservoirs for the diseases. In infected seed, bacteria spread which propagates crop residues through rains that can be driven by wind or water splashes and various other sources.
3. What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?
The three shapes are:
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