RBSE Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 13: Waste and Its Management | Textbook Important Questions & Answers

The main aim of RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 13 solutions is to help students perform well in the exams. Learning these Rajasthan Board Solutions will help students build a proper foundation of the subject, by clearing up any doubts they may have. Since these RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Chapter 13 cover all the questions from the RBSE textbooks that are prescribed for the class, this is the best resource for students to study for the exams. Here, we are providing the solutions to all the questions of Chapter 13 of Class 10 Science for the students.

It is considered as an essential resource for students preparing for Class 10 Science exam. It helps them in clearing all their doubts related to difficult and complex topics. These RBSE Class 10 solutions of Science Chapter 13 provide proper guidance and thorough learning experience. Use of these solutions can be a good move towards achieving greater success while writing the Science exam.

RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 13: Objective Textbook Questions and Solutions

Q1. Which technique is suitable for the disposal of bio-medical waste?

(A) Land

(B) Incineration

(C) Recycling

(D) Disposal in water.

Answer: B

Q2. Recycling is the best treatment for what type of waste?

(A) Metal waste

(B) Medical waste

(C) Agricultural waste

(D) Domestic waste

Answer: A

Q3. Which of the following is the main greenhouse gas?

(A) Hydrogen

(B) Carbon monoxide

(C) Carbon dioxide

(D) Sulphur dioxide

Answer: C

Q4. How much average waste per person gets in the big cities of India?

(A) 0.1 kg

(B) 0.1 – 0.2 kg

(C) 0.2 – 0.4 kg

(D) 0.4 – 0.6 kg

Answer: D

Q5. Organic manure can be made from.

(A) Domestic waste

(B) Agricultural waste

(C) Both

(D) None of the above.

Answer: C

RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 13: Very Short Type Textbook Questions and Solutions

Q6. How is biogas made?

Answer: Biogas is a renewable energy source produced by the breakdown of organic matter by certain bacteria under anaerobic conditions. It is a mixture of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. It can be produced by agricultural waste, food waste, animal dung, manure and sewage. The process of biogas production is also known as anaerobic digestion.

Q7. What is a waste?

Answer: Waste is defined as unwanted and unusable materials and is regarded as a substance which is of no use. Waste that we see in our surroundings is also known as garbage. Garbage is mainly considered as a solid waste that includes wastes from our houses (domestic waste), wastes from schools, offices, etc (municipal wastes) and wastes from industries and factories (industrial wastes).

Q8. Write the names of GreenHouse Gases?

Answer: The names of Greenhouse gases are:

  • Carbon dioxide
  • Methane
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Ozone

Q9. What is vermicompost?

Answer: Vermicomposting is the scientific method of making compost, by using earthworms which are commonly found living in soil, feeding on biomass and excreting it in a digested form.

Vermiculture means “worm-farming”. Earthworms feed on the organic waste materials and give out excreta in the form of “vermicasts” that are rich in nitrates and minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and potassium. These are used as fertilizers and enhance soil quality.

Q10. Which disease can be caused due to the stoppage of water in the drains?

Answer: The disease that can be caused due to the stoppage of water in the drains are Cholera and Malaria.

RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 13: Short Type Textbook Questions and Solutions

Q11. Explain waste management?

Answer: Waste Management is collection, transportation and disposal of garbage, sewage and other products. Waste management consists of solid, liquid, gas and radioactive substance. Different methods and expertise are used for each substance. Methods of waste management is different for developing and developed countries, villages and cities, residential and industrial producers.

Q12. What is meant by solid waste?

Answer: The term solid waste management mainly refers to the complete process of collecting, treating and disposing of the solid wastes. In the waste management process, the wastes are collected from different sources and are disposed of. This process includes transportation, analysis, legal procedures, along with monitoring and enforcing regulations. There are a number of principles related to the waste management system, but a generally accepted concept is one of the ‘Hierarchy of Waste Management’.

Q13. Write difference between biodegradable waste and non biodegradable waste?

Answer: Difference between Biodegradable and non-biodegradable

S.No Biodegradable Non Biodegradable
1 Degradation process in Biodegradable waste is rapid Degradation process in Non-Biodegradable waste is slow
2 Biodegradable waste is decomposed and degraded by microbes Non-Biodegradable waste cannot be decomposed by microbes
3 Biodegradable waste are not accumulated but are used up in short time Non-Biodegradable waste often accumulate
4 Biodegradable waste become part of biogeochemical cycles and give back rapid turnover Most of Non-Biodegradable waste never enter into biogeochemical cycles, very slow and toxic
5 Biodegradable waste are used to produce energy manure, compost and biogas Non-Biodegradable waste can be separated and recycled but the process is very expensive

Q14. What do you mean by landfill?

Answer: In this process, the waste that cannot be reused or recycled are separated out and spread as a thin layer in low-lying areas across a city. A layer of soil is added after each layer of garbage. However, once this process is complete, the area is declared unfit for construction of buildings for the next 20 years. Instead, it can only be used as a playground or a park. Landfills are often made in non-use mines, mining pits, etc.

Q15. What does recycling mean?

Answer: In general, recycling is defined as a process of converting waste and non-useful products into new and useful products for human use. Recycling is an excellent and cost-efficient system of conserving the environment and saving energy. Recycling of waste products is more essential as it helps in treating waste and used products and converting them into useful or new products. Recycling also helps in monitoring air, land and water pollution.

Q16. Incineration method is used for what purpose?

Answer: Incineration is performed on both scales. It is used by individuals on a small scale, industries use it on large scale for the execution of liquid, solid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method for the execution of biological therapeutic waste. But because of emission of gaseous pollutants, incineration waste execution is a controversial method. Incineration is more prevalent in countries like Japan because it requires a small piece of land. It does not require a large area like landfill.

Q17. What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste?

Answer: Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be degraded by other living organisms. Biodegradable waste can be commonly found in municipal solid waste as green waste, food waste, paper waste, and biodegradable plastics. Other biodegradable wastes include human waste, manure, sewage, slaughterhouse waste.

Waste that cannot be decomposed by the biological processes is known as “Non-biodegradable wastes”. Most of the inorganic waste is non-biodegradable. Non-biodegradable wastes that can be recycled are known as “Recyclable waste” and those which cannot be recycled are known as “Non-recyclable waste”.

Q18. Explain other remedies for waste disposal?

Answer: The other remedies for waste disposal are as follows:

  • Waste can be disposed in deep oceans, but it is necessary to note that the ocean environment is not polluted
  • Fat can be obtained by baking animal residues such as bones, feathers, blood, etc which in turn, can be used for making soap and its protein part can be used as a cattle feed.
  • Garbage can be changed to solid bricks by exerting heavy pressure.
  • The urban sewage water should be stored in a pit away from the city and after purification it can be used in irrigation.
  • The disposal of waste material and reuse requires extensive research at government and non-governmental level. Further, the developed countries should provide all the technologies to the developing countries which are helpful in disposal of water and for protection of the environment.
  • For solving the growing problem of waste products and environmental protection, it is necessary to form a long term master plan for a region, even for each city so that it can be resolved in a planned way.

Q19. Explain sources of solid waste?

Answer: The sources of solid waste are:

  • Trash/garbage that is solid in nature (and not liquid or gas).
  • Discarded solid material from industrial, municipal and agricultural activities.
  • Household material consisting of everyday garbage, food and yard waste.
  • Chemicals, plastics, toxic wastes, glass, metals, hospital wastes, etc.
  • Includes construction waste, biomedical waste, electronic waste (or e-waste) or even sewage sludge as part of different industries.

Q20. What are the effects of waste disposal?

Answer: Efficient disposal methods can mean the difference between becoming an environmental bio-hazard or a safe and sustainable method for getting rid of wastes.

Effects of Waste Disposal
Method Advantage Disadvantage
Landfill Land can be reused for community purposes Needs frequent maintenance. May lead to infiltration of toxins into the soil or groundwater.
Incineration Requires very little land, the residue is stable and non-toxic Requires high energy requirement
Waste Compaction Significantly reduces the volume of waste Cannot compress certain materials such as glass bottles or jars
Composting Enriches soil, reduces the need for natural fertilizers Requires relatively large areas. The odour may become a problem
Open Dumping Inexpensive Potential health hazard as it can harbour many pathogens
Recycling Sustainable for the future Expensive, separation of materials is hard.

Q21. What are the causes of waste management?

Answer: Causes of waste management are important to understand from an academic perspective. If not for efficient waste management, the streets would be littered with filth, lakes and rivers would become very toxic for life. Human health will be severely affected if not for careful waste management practices. Therefore, the major causes of waste management practices come into play after environmental disasters such as oil spills. The primary purpose of waste management is to ensure that proper actions and activities are undertaken from the initial creation to final disposal. Ignorance of the environment’s plight significantly contributed to the creation of waste management principles. Climate can also play a role in waste management. Usually, waste materials decompose faster in a slightly warmer and humid environment.

Q22. Why is waste management not efficient in small towns?

Answer: Municipalities in small towns suffer from shortage of funds. So, the contractors do not get timely payment. Even sanitation workers do not get regular salary. Due to these reasons, waste management is not efficient in small towns.

RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 13: Essay Type Textbook Questions and Solutions

Q23. Describe the types of wastes?

Answer: The types of wastes are:

Solid wastes – These are the unwanted substances that are discarded by human society. These include urban wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, biomedical wastes and radioactive wastes.

Liquid wastes – Wastes generated from washing, flushing or manufacturing processes of industries are called liquid wastes.

Gaseous wastes – These are the wastes that are released in the form of gases from automobiles, factories or burning of fossil fuels like petroleum. They get mixed in the other gases atmosphere and occasionally cause events such as smog and acid rain.

Waste is classified in two types:

Biodegradable waste

These are the wastes that come from our kitchen and it includes food remains, garden waste, etc. Biodegradable waste is also known as moist waste. This can be composted to obtain manure. Biodegradable wastes decompose themselves over a period of time, depending on the material.

Non-biodegradable waste

These are the wastes which include old newspapers, broken glass pieces, plastics, etc. Non-biodegradable waste is known as dry waste. Dry wastes can be recycled and can be reused. Non-biodegradable wastes do not decompose by themselves and hence are major pollutants.

Q24. Write an article on waste management?

Answer: Waste Management is collection, transportation and disposal of garbage, sewage and other products. Waste management consists of solid, liquid, gas and radioactive substance. Different methods and expertise are used for each substance. Methods of waste management is different for developing and developed countries, villages and cities, residential and industrial producers.

Landfill

In this process, the waste that cannot be reused or recycled are separated out and spread as a thin layer in low-lying areas across a city. A layer of soil is added after each layer of garbage. However, once this process is complete, the area is declared unfit for construction of buildings for the next 20 years. Instead, it can only be used as a playground or a park.

Incineration

Incineration is the process of controlled combustion of garbage to reduce it to incombustible matter such as ash and waste gas. The exhaust gasses from this process may be toxic, hence it is treated before being released into the environment. This process reduced the volume of waste by 90 per cent and considered as one of the most hygienic methods of waste disposal. In some cases, the heat generated is used to produce electricity. However, some consider this process not quite environmentally friendly due to the generation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.

Recycling methods

Conversion of waste into new material is known as recycling, using which the waste material is renewed. The most common consumer products for recycling are aluminium drink cans, steel, food and aerosol cans, plastic and glass bottles, cardboard boxes, magazines, plastic goods, etc. Natural organic waste such as residual food, paper, wool etc. can be used to make compost, vermi compost and organic manure. Also, by this process electricity can be produced by producing gas.

Chemical reaction

Many waste material can also be destroyed by chemical action or they can be made useful again.

Q25. Write an essay on the sources of waste?

Answer: Sources of waste can be broadly classified into four types: Industrial, Commercial, Domestic, and Agricultural.

Industrial Waste

These are the wastes created in factories and industries. Most industries dump their wastes in rivers and seas which cause a lot of pollution. Example: plastic, glass, etc.

Commercial Waste

Commercial wastes are produced in schools, colleges, shops, and offices. Example: plastic, paper, etc.

Domestic Waste

The different household wastes which are collected during household activities like cooking, cleaning, etc. are known as domestic wastes. Example: leaves, vegetable peels, excreta, etc.

Agricultural Waste

Various wastes produced in the agricultural field are known as agricultural wastes. Example: cattle waste, weed, husk, etc.

Q26. Make a list of different waste materials by classifying them around your surroundings?

Answer: Biodegradable Waste – Fruit peels, vegetable peels, dry leaves, stale food, paper, empty cartons, old clothes, jute bags, etc.

Non-biodegradable Waste – Empty cans, plastic bottles, bubble wrap, discarded toys, glass items, etc.

Q27. What will you do for management of waste in your colony or village?

Answer: We can do the following things for management of waste in our colony or village:

  • I will request people to use garbage bins to throw garbage.
  • Will request our municipal bodies for regular maintenance of drainage system.
  • I will educate people on segregation of wet and dry waste so that items can be recycled.

Q28. Define types of industrial waste?

Answer: Industrial waste can be categorized into biodegradable and non-biodegradable.

  • Biodegradable: Those industrial wastes which can be decomposed into the non-poisonous matter by the action of certain microorganisms are the biodegradable wastes. They are even comparable to house wastes. These kinds of waste are generated from food processing industries, dairy, textile mills, slaughterhouses, etc. Some examples are paper, leather, wool, animal bones, wheat, etc. They are not toxic in nature and do not require special treatment either. Their treatment processes include combustion, composting, gasification, bio-methanation, etc.
  • Non-biodegradable: Those industrial wastes which cannot be decomposed into non-poisonous substances are non-biodegradable wastes. Examples are plastics, fly ash, synthetic fibers, gypsum, silver foil, glass objects, radioactive wastes, etc. They are generated by iron and steel plants, fertilizer industries, chemical, drugs and dye industries. It is estimated that about 10 to 15 percent of the total industrial wastes are non-biodegradable and hazardous, and the rate of increase in this category of waste is only increasing every year. These wastes cannot be broken down easily and made less harmful. Hence, they pollute the environment and cause threat to living organisms. They accumulate in the environment and enter the bodies of animals and plants causing diseases. However, with the advancement in technology, several disposals, and reuse methods have been developed. Wastes from one industry are being treated and utilized in another industry. For example, the cement industry uses the slag and fly ash generated as waste by steel industries. Landfill and incineration are other methods which are being resorted to, for the treatment of hazardous wastes.

Q29. What are the major causes of solid waste pollution?

Answer: Causes of solid waste pollution are many. Every day, tons of solid wastes are disposed of at various landfills. These wastes come from various places such as schools, office complexes, industrial establishments, construction and demolition activities. One of the major causes of solid waste pollution can be attributed to various industries that manufacture various products. However, the amount of waste generated may vary by countries.

The following are some of the major factors that contribute to solid waste pollution:

  • Commercial establishments
  • Residential houses
  • Debris from construction and demolition
  • Debris from roads (such as asphalt and scrap metal)
  • Scrap from vehicles
  • Agriculture.

Q30. Explain the suggestions of Shivraman Committee?

Answer: Following are the suggestions of Shivaraman Committee:

  • Installation of large garbage bins.
  • Proper arrangement of management of human excreta.
  • Proper system for picking up garbage in towns.
  • Using incinerators for disposing of the waste.

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