Among various human values, an important value of remaining clean is also included. In Indian philosophy, keeping the body, soul, mind and environment clean have been considered to be important functions of human life. In the ancient education system, after the Yagnopavit ceremony, each student was given education associated with sanitation. The solutions of RBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 20 contain detailed explanations so that students can enhance their learning skills. The step by step explanations helps students answer the questions effectively. Students can use RBSE Class 10 Solutions of Social Science for Chapter 20 to practise the questions and ace the exam without fear.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 20 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q1. Why is sanitation important for mankind?
Answer: Domestic and industrial waste polluted water, solid waste of human and animals and agricultural waste spread diseases. The work of disposal of all waste is called sanitation. Increasing amount of rubbish or waste is becoming a serious problem for densely populated regions. Especially for children, youth and elders in weaker sections, who have less immunity and are suffering from diseases. These factors are the main causes of spread of diseases.
Q2. When was education regarding sanitation provided?
Answer: Education regarding sanitation was provided on 1st April, 1999.
Q3. What is domestic waste?
Answer: The different household wastes which are collected during household activities like cooking, cleaning, etc. are known as domestic wastes. Example: leaves, vegetable peels, excreta, etc.
Q4. What is hazardous waste?
Answer: Any chemical, biological, or radiological material that has the potential to harm the environment, animals or humans are considered as a hazardous waste.
Q5. What is organic manure?
Answer: Organic manures are natural products used by farmers to provide food (plant nutrients) for the crop plants. There are a number of organic manures like farmyard manure, green manures, compost manure.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 20 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q6. Explain the meaning of sanitation according to the World Health Organization.
Answer: The meaning of sanitation according to the World Health Organization are as follows:
- For sanitation, people should themselves arrange for resources and measures to keep toilets and polluted water clean.
- Common meaning of sanitation refers to those provisions, facilities and services, which make mankind perform a secure disposal of excreta, urine and rubbish, etc.
- Many entrepreneurs are of the opinion that sanitation is an idea, a belief in its entire form and the following things are included in it:
- Safe collection, storage, sensible disposal and reusability of human faeces, urine, rubbish, etc.
- Re-using solid waste and management of recycling.
- Measures for outflow, disposal and recycling of domestic polluted water.
- Arrangement of water outflow of rains and storms.
- Collection and disposal management of industrial waste.
- Collection and disposal management of hazardous waste such as chemical waste, radioactive waste and waste from hospitals.
Q7. Mention the types of sanitation.
Answer: The types of sanitation are as follows:
- Community led Total Sanitation (CLTS): CLTS is associated with the common and insensible habit of easing and urinating performed by rural people in open areas. CLTS aims to apprise people about the subsidized schemes run to prevent rural people from easing and urinating in open areas.
- Dry Sanitation: Dry sanitation refers to concerted efforts made for making dry toilets. Washing hands is not it’s only objective.
- Ecological Sanitation: Ecological sanitation generally refers to intense inter-relationship between agricultural measures and cleanliness. In other words, ecological sanitation refers to secure recycling of additional resources. Emphasis is laid on taking nutritional food and decreasing the use of non renewable resources in growing organic crops.
- Environmental Sanitation- Control of the environment which is associated with diseases comes in the sphere of environmental sanitation. Solid waste management, treatment of water and polluted water, industrial waste treatment and noise pollution, are small components of this category.
- Improved and Unimproved Sanitation- It is associated with the age old habit of controlling human defecating and urinating at domestic level. Under this, cleanliness and provision of adequate water is ensured.
- Lack of Sanitation- It is associated with the lack of toilets which are used by individuals, as per their discretion. Lack of sanitation is commonly and seriously a reason for easing and urinating in the open.
- Sustainable Sanitation- The area of sustainable sanitation includes complete sanitation. In this, on the basis of consumer’s status and experience, methods of transport, treatment, reuse and disposal of waste, faeces and urine and polluted water are included.
Q8. Which measures have been adopted for Solid Waste Management?
Answer: Following are some of the important measures adopted for Solid Waste Management:
- Waste reduction and reuse – Reduction and reuse of products are included in measures for waste disposal. In reduction, both the producers and consumers are asked to generate less waste. For example, less packaging, less use of bags, pouches and covers, etc, to use bags made of cloth or any other reusable material. Under the process of reuse, people are made aware to purchase reusable items. For example, instead of throwing off unwanted items such as cloth napkins, plastic goods, glass utensils, etc. they should be buried, distributed or given to people as charity.
- Recycling of waste – Recycling refers to using waste and converting it into useful raw material and decreasing the amount of waste. There are three levels in the process of recycling: 1. Identifying recyclable substances and metals from collected waste and collecting them separately. 2. Making raw materials from collected substances or metals. 3. Making new items from raw material.
- Waste collection- Special waste and recyclable waste should be collected by workers appointed by local corporations in cities twice in a week. Wastes which are the breeding grounds of houseflies, or wastes which emit foul odour or the wastes spread in the open should be collected and removed as soon as possible.
- Treatment and disposal – Technique of waste management performs research to modify management in such form so that the quantity of waste produced becomes less and waste disposal becomes easy. Processes of waste management are implemented on the basis of quantity, type and category of waste. For example waste- disposal at high temperature, by burying inside the ground or by adopting organic process. Suitable alternative is chosen for the treatment and disposal. In order to provide the final form to the waste, one out of the following techniques is adopted- re- cycling, pressing after re-use, shortening the management technique.
- Incineration- Incineration is a major common thermal process. Waste burns in presence of oxygen. After incineration, waste transforms into carbon dioxide, water, steam and ash. This process forms a source for energy production. It is used to provide heat for electricity production. Incineration is an additional process of providing heat. Cost of transportation decreases due to this. Production of methane- a greenhouse gas- is decreased through this process.
- Gasification and Pyrolysis- Gasification and Pyrolysis both are thermal processes. Under these processes, elements of waste are segregated at high temperature. In Gasification, waste is burnt in regions with less oxygen availability and in Pyrolysis waste is burned in the absence of oxygen. This technique is used in areas of less or no oxygen availability. Pyrolysis liquid is formed by a mixture of combustible and non combustible gases. One unique characteristic feature of Pyrolysis is that energy can be replenished without causing any air pollution.
Q9. What are the advantages of Solid Waste Management?
Answer: The advantages of Solid Waste Management are as follows:
Public health, environment and biotic systems benefit from the process of Solid Waste Management. At present, sufficient technical expertise and finance are available to eradicate this problem to a large extent, which will produce good long term effects such as-
- Fire accidents, spread of rats, spread of micro- organisms and insects which are responsible for infectious diseases. Stray animals can also be controlled.
- Diseases will be controlled, public health will improve, capacity to work will increase and the burden of patients on hospitals will decline.
- Due to decrease in the outflow of poisonous elements, water pollution will decline.
- Cheap and quality organic manure will be available, agricultural productivity will increase and there will be more crops.
- Cheap energy will be available in the form of electricity production, due to which expense on electricity production will be reduced.
- Raw material will be available due to which recycled goods will become cheap.
- Due to increase in working hours, opportunities of employment will increase. Income will also increase.
- Availability of precious metals will increase.
Q10. Why is sanitation important for mankind?
Answer: Increasing amount of rubbish or waste is becoming a serious problem for densely populated regions. Especially for children, youth and elders in weaker sections, who have less immunity and are suffering from diseases. These factors are the main causes of spread of diseases. One reason for environmental pollution is injudicious management of waste. Even today many people do not have the resources to dispose of their rubbish and waste.
Untreated polluted water and other waste of environment cause harm to human health in various ways, such as –
- Drinking water becomes impure and polluted.
- Food chain is disturbed and polluted via contaminated fruits, vegetables and fish, etc.
- Bathing and entertainment activities in water bodies cause water sources to be impure and polluted.
- Spread and increase of flies and several other insects spread diseases.
When human beings destroy their waste properly, hygiene and good health prevail resulting in good health.