RBSE Solutions For Class 12 Biology Chapter 3: Pollination, Fertilization and Development of Endosperm and Embryo | Textbook Important Questions & Answers

RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 3- Pollination, Fertilization and Development of Endosperm and Embryo provide complete information related to pollination, types of pollination, agents involved in transferring pollen grains, fertilization and the development of endosperm and embryo and development of male and female gametophyte. It also includes a detailed explanation of pollen tube, entry of pollen tube into the embryo sac, double fertilization, triple fusion and significance of fertilization and pollination.

These important questions help students to ace their exams. By practising these important questions, students can analyze their preparation, get a thorough knowledge about all the important terminologies and perform best in their examinations.

Both RBSE textbooks solutions and RBSE Solutions for Class 12 are the best study material for both class assignments and other board examinations. By practising these important questions, students can gain deep knowledge about the topics explained in this chapter and also help students to be well prepared for their upcoming examinations.

RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Important Questions

RBSE Biology Chapter 3: MCQs Type Questions

Q.1.The pollen tube grows towards the ______.

(a)Embryo.

(b)Ovary.

(c)Embryo sac.

(d)Zygote.

Sol: (b)Ovary

Q.2. Who discovered the process of double fertilization?

(a)Robert Hooke.

(b)Eduard Adolf Strasburger.

(c)Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.

(d)Sergei Gavrilovich Navashin.

Sol: (d)Sergei Gavrilovich Navashin.

Q.3.Pollen is produced by the ______.

(a)Pollen tube.

(b)Anthers.

(c)Stigma.

(d)Ovary.

Sol: (b) Anthers.

Q.4.Anemophily is the process of transferring pollen grains through the ______.

(a)Insects.

(b)Wind.

(c)Water.

(d)Birds.

Sol: (b)Wind.

Q.5. After the process of germination, pollen gives rise to ______.

(a) Pollen tube.

(b) Embryo.

(c) Zygote.

(d) Ovary.

Sol: (a) Pollen tube.

Q.6.Formation of seeds requires ______.

(a) Pollination.

(b) Fertilization.

(c) Gametogenesis.

(d) Megasporogenesis.

Sol: (a)Pollination.

Q.7. Embryo sac is located inside the ______.

(a)Pollen tube.

(b)Anthers.

(c)Ovule.

(d)Stigma.

Sol: (c)Ovule

Q.8.The process of transferring pollen grains is termed as ______.

(a)Pollination.

(b)Fertilization.

(c)Transpiration.

(d)Cross-pollination.

Sol: (a)Pollination.

Q.9. Where do pollen grains land during pollination?

(a)Zygote

(b)Ovary

(c)Style

(d)Stigma

Sol: (d) Stigma

Q.10.Which of the following statements are true?

(a) Zoophily is a form of pollination where the pollen is transferred by animals.

(b) Zoophily is a form of pollination where the pollen is transferred by humans.

(c) Zoophily is a form of pollination where the pollen is transferred by insects.

(d) Zoophily is a form of pollination where the pollen is transferred by bat.

Sol: (a) Zoophily is a form of pollination where the pollen is transferred by animals.

Q.11. Embryo and Endosperm are developed in the embryo sac after ______.

(a)Pollination.

(b)Fertilization.

(c)Double fertilization.

(d)Cross-pollination.

Sol:(c)Double fertilization.

Q.12.Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower is called ______.

(a)Pollination.

(b)Self-pollination.

(c)Transportation.

(d)Cross-pollination.

Sol: (b) Self-pollination.

Q.13. After the process of fertilization, the ovule develops into ______.

(a) Seed.

(b) Flower.

(c) Fruit.

(d) Pollen grain.

Sol: (a) Seed.

Q.14. ______surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition

(a)Endosperm

(b)Ovary

(c)Embryo sac

(d)Zygote

Sol: (a)Endosperm

Q.15. After the process of fertilization, the ovary develops into ______.

(a) Seed.

(b) Flower.

(c) Fruit.

(d) Pollen grain.

Sol: (c) Fruit.

Q.16.Cross-pollination mainly takes place through ______.

(a)Wind

(b)Water

(c) Insects

(d)All of the above

Sol: (d)All of the above

Q.17._____ is formed by the fusion of male and female gametes.

(a)Seed

(b)Ovule.

(c) Zygote.

(d)Nucellus

Sol: (c) Zygote.

Q.18.Which of the following is a pollinating agent for Anthocephalus?

(a)Birds.

(b)Insects.

(c) Bats.

(d)Wind.

Sol:(c) Bats.

Q.19. A seed coat develops from______.

(a) Integuments.

(b) Nucellus.

(c) Funicle.

(d) Hilum.

Sol: (a)Integuments.

Q.20.Which of the following statements are true?

(a)The seed develops as a result of triple fusion.

(b)The embryo develops as a result of triple fusion.

(c)Endosperm develops as a result of triple fusion.

(d)Embryo sac develops as a result of triple fusion.

Sol: (c)Endosperm develops as a result of triple fusion.

RBSE Biology Chapter 3:Short Answer Type Questions.

Q.1. Define Ornithophily.

Sol. Ornithophily is the type of cross-pollination, where the transfer of pollen grain is carried out by the birds. The plants have brightly coloured flowers with nectar to attract birds. Sacred Tree, Ribes, Fuchsia are a few examples of bird-pollinated flowers or Ornithophily.

Q.2.What is Apomixis?

Sol: The process of developing embryos without fertilization is defined as Apomixis. There are more than 300 apomictic plant species and are widely distributed among the higher plants. There are five different types of apomixis and are mainly differentiated based on their formation of an embryo sac.

Q.3.Give examples of self-pollinating plants.

Sol: Self-pollination occurs when the pollen from the anther is deposited on the stigma of the same flower or another flower on the same plant. There are a variety of self-pollinating plants in the plant kingdom. A few of them are green peas, peaches, tomatoes, eggplants, apricots beans, lettuce, peppers, etc.

Q.4.What is incompatibility?

Sol. In flowering plants, incompatibility is defined as the failure of fertilization between fully functional and fertile male gametes and female gametes. There are two different types of incompatibility – Interspecific and intraspecific incompatibility.

Q.5. What is the alternation of generations?

Sol: The pattern of reproduction occurring in the life cycles of all vascular plants is termed as alternation of generations. During the alternation of generations in angiosperms, sporophyte (diploid) and gametophyte (haploid) phases alternate with each other.

Q.6. List out the significance of pollination.

Sol: The significance of pollination are:

  1. Helps in the fertilisation process.
  2. Helps in the fusion of both male and female gametes.
  3. Helps in the introduction of new variations in plant species.
  4. Helps in the production of seeds and fruits and overall helps in reproduction.

Q.7. What are the different types of pollen tube entry in an ovule?

Sol: The entry of a pollen tube into an ovule is of three types:

  • Porogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into the ovule through the micropyle.
  • Chalazogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into the ovule through the chalazal end – the basal part of a plant ovule.
  • Mesogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into the ovule piercing the integument – a tough protective layer of a plant ovule.

Q.8. Define the process of development of a fruit.

Sol: The development of a fruit process begins after the fertilization – the fusion of the male gametes. The ovary develops into a fruit. The fruits formed from the ovary are called the true fruits. In some plants, apart from the ovary, fruits are also formed from the calyx and corolla is termed as a false fruit.

Q.9. Define Cheiropterophily.

Sol: Cheiropterophily is the type of cross-pollination, where the transfer of pollen grain is carried out by the bats. There are many flowering plants, which are open during the night and secrete nectar. Bats, the nocturnal and flying mammals visit different plants in search of insects and nectar, therefore helpful in the process of pollination.

Q.10. What is Double Fertilization?

Sol: Double fertilization is a major characteristic of flowering plants or angiosperms.

In this process of fertilization, two male gametes fuses with one female gamete. As a result, one male gamete fertilizes the egg to form a zygote and the other male gamete fuses with two polar nuclei to form an endosperm.

Q.11.Define parthenocarpic fruits with examples.

Sol: The parthenocarpic fruits are referred to as the types of fruits, which are developed without fertilization of ovules and are often seedless. The condition is called parthenocarpy.

Banana, cucumber, figs, grapes, grapefruit, pears, pineapple, oranges and watermelon are some examples of parthenocarpic fruits.

Q.12.Write the differences between true fruits and false fruit.

Sol: The true fruits are defined as the fruits formed from the ovary. The false fruits are also formed from the ovary and other parts of the flower calyx and corolla are termed as a false fruit.

Q.13.What is cross-pollination? Give examples for cross-pollinating plants.

Sol: Cross-pollination is a type of pollination in which the pollen grains are transferred from the anther of one flower into the stigma of another flower of a different plant. This is a complex type of pollination compared to self-pollination. Apples, daffodils, maple trees, pumpkins, and most of the flowering plants are examples of cross-pollinating plants.

Q.14.List out the functions of the endosperm.

Sol: Endosperm is present in the seeds of most of the angiosperms. The functions of Endosperm are:

  1. Nourish the developing embryo.
  2. Helps in the growth of an embryo.
  3. Provide protection to the developing embryo.
  4. It provides nourishment to the seeds during dormancy.
  5. Regulate cellular differentiation, gene expression and seed germination.

Q.15.What is self-fertility?

Sol: Self sterility is generally used to describe the plants, which fail to produce pollen grains and its due to the presence of similar sterile genes. Tobacco, Crucifers, Potato and Gramineae are a few examples of self sterility plants.

Q.16. How is seed formed from an ovule?

Sol: After fertilization, the entire ovule develops into a seed. A seed is formed when the fertilised ovule divides by mitosis. During the development of seed, an embryo and endosperm are developed in the embryo sac after double fertilization.

Q.17.What is monosiphonous and polysiphonous?

Sol: The pollen grains, which produce only one pollen tube is called Monosiphonous, whereas the pollen grains, which produce more than one pollen tube is defined as the Polysiphonous.

Q.18.What is the significance of double fertilization?

Sol: Listed below are the significance of double fertilization:

  1. It increases the viability of the seeds of angiosperms.
  2. Two products are obtained as a result of double fertilization.
  3. It utilizes both the male gametes produced by the pollen grains.
  4. Increases the chances of survival in both polyembryony and plants.
  5. Give rise to an endosperm that provides nourishment to the developing embryo.

Q.19.What is Embryogenesis?

Sol. Plant embryogenesis begins with fertilization. In the plant life cycle, embryogenesis refers to the beginning of the diploid stage. In the embryogenesis process, plant embryos are formed and developed, the basic body plan of the plant is established, primary plant tissue types are differentiated, and food reserves are accumulated, which are ultimately used by the germinating seedling following a period of dormancy.

Q.20.What is the importance of triple fusion?

Sol: The fusion that involves a sperm nucleus and two polar nuclei which occurs in the double fertilization in a seed-bearing plant and which results in the endosperm formation is referred to as triple fusion.

RBSE Biology Class 12: Long Answer Type Questions

Q.1.What is pollination and Pollinating Agents? Illustrate the neat labelled diagram to represent the process of pollination.

Sol.

Pollination

Pollination is defined as the process of transferring pollen grains from an anther – male part of a flower to the stigma – female part of a flower.

Pollination

Q.2. Write the differences between Pollination and Fertilization.

Sol:

Pollination Fertilization
It is an external process. It is an internal process.
Occurs before pollination. Occurs after pollination.
It is the transfer of pollen grains from the male to the female part of a flower. It is the fusion of male and female gametes.
It is a physical process. It is a genetic and biochemical process.
External factors are required. External factors are not required.
Are achieved by agents like wind, birds, insects and animals. Are achieved by the growth of pollen tubes.
This process leads to fertilization. This process leads to the formation of seeds.
There is no formation of pollen tubes. Pollen tubes are formed for transferring male gametes into an egg cell
Occurs in the early stages of sexual reproduction in all flowering plants. It is preceded by pollination in all flowering plants.
Occurs only in flowering plants. Occurs only in all living species.

Q.3. Explain in brief about endosperm, along with its types and functions.

Sol: The endosperm is the part of a seed, which contains the nutrients stored in it. It provides nutrients to the seed in the form of starch, carbohydrates and proteins to support the embryo during germination. It is located below the seed coat and constitutes a major portion of the seed. In seeds like beans, the endosperm is utilized in the embryo development.

Based on the process of development, the endosperm is divided into three types.

  1. Nuclear endosperm: In this type of endosperm development, the primary endosperm nucleus forms many nuclei by free nuclear division.
  2. Cellular endosperm: In this type of endosperm development, the primary endosperm nucleus divides into two nuclei and a cell wall is formed between the two nuclei.
  3. Helobial endosperm: This is an intermediate type of endosperm. In this type of endosperm development, the division of the primary endosperm nucleus is followed by the wall formation.

Q.4. Define the following terms:

  1. Porogamy.
  2. Chalazogamy.
  3. Mesogamy.

Sol:

  1. Porogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into the ovule through the micropyle.
  2. Chalazogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into the ovule through the chalazal end – the basal part of a plant ovule.
  3. Mesogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into the ovule piercing the integument – a tough protective layer of a plant ovule.

Q.5. Write a brief note on the following terms:

  1. Embryogenesis.
  2. Development of seed.
  3. Development of Fruits.
  4. Fertilization in angiosperms.

Sol:

  1. Embryogenesis-In the embryogenesis process, plant embryos are formed and developed, the basic body plan of the plant is established, primary plant tissue types are differentiated, and food reserves are accumulated, which are ultimately used by the germinating seedling following a period of dormancy.
  2. Development of seed- The development of seed begins development of the embryo and endosperm in the embryo sac after double fertilization. Followed with certain changes in the ovule and ovary, the ovule develops into a seed.
  3. Development of Fruits- The development of a fruit process begins after the fertilization and the fusion of the male gametes. The ovary develops into a fruit. In some plants, apart from the ovary, fruits are also formed from the calyx and corolla.
  4. Fertilization in angiosperms- Fertilization is a sexual reproduction process, which takes place in all flowering plants, which occurs after pollination and germination. It is a physicochemical process, occurs by the fusion of the male gametes (pollen) with the female gametes (ovum) to form a diploid zygote.

Q.6.What is Pollination? Explain the different types of Pollination.

Sol:

Pollination is defined as the process of transferring pollen grains from an anther – male part of a flower to the stigma – female part of a flower.

There are two different types of pollination:

Self-pollination is a type of pollination in which the pollen grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma of the flower of the same plant.

Cross-pollination is a type of pollination in which the pollen grains are transferred from the anther of one flower into the stigma of another flower of a different plant. This is a complex type of pollination compared to self-pollination.

Based on the pollinating agents, cross-pollination is classified into five different types:

  1. Anemophily- Pollination by the wind.
  2. Hydrophily- Pollination by water.
  3. Entomophily-Pollination by insects.
  4. Ornithophily-Pollination by birds.
  5. Cheiropterophily- Pollination by bats.

Q.7. What is fertilization? Explain the different types of Fertilization.

Sol: Fertilization is a sexual reproduction process, which takes place in all flowering plants, which occurs after pollination and germination. It is a physicochemical process, occurs by the fusion of the male gametes (pollen) with the female gametes (ovum) to form a diploid zygote.

Types of Fertilization

Fertilization processes can be grouped into three types and are classified mainly based on the entry of the pollen tube into the ovule.

  • Porogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into the ovule through the micropyle.
  • Chalazogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into the ovule through the chalazal end – the basal part of a plant ovule.
  • Mesogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into the ovule piercing the integument – a tough protective layer of a plant ovule.

Q.8. Explain the process involved in the development of a seed.

Sol: A seed is a small, embryonic plant, which is enclosed in a seed coat usually with some stored food. It is produced when the completely ripened and fertilised ovule divides by mitosis. The development of seed begins with the development of an embryo and endosperm in the embryo sac after the double fertilization. Followed by certain changes in the ovule and ovary, the ovule develops into a seed.

Based on the presence of an endosperm, the developed seed are classified into:

Non endospermous- They are also called the ex-albuminous seed. In these seeds the entire endosperm has been used during the development of an embryo. Ground nuts, chickpea, and other dicot seeds are examples of non endospermous

Endospermous- They are also called the ex-albuminous seed. In these seeds, the endosperm remains even after the embryo development. Castor oil seeds, maize and other monocot seeds are examples of endospermous.

Q.9. Explain self and cross-pollination with diagrams.

Sol:

The agents which are responsible for transferring the produced pollen grains from the anther of one flower into the stigma of another flower of a different plant are called the pollinating agents. The pollinating agents include wind, water, insects, birds and bats.

Self-pollination

Self-pollination is a type of pollination in which the pollen grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma of the flower of the same plant.

Self Pollination

Cross-pollination

Cross-pollination is a type of pollination in which the pollen grains are transferred from the anther of one flower into the stigma of another flower of a different plant. This is a complex type of pollination compared to self-pollination.

Cross Pollination

Q.10. Write the differences between self-pollination and cross-pollination.

Sol:

Self-pollination Cross-pollination
Transfer pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower. Transfer pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the different flowers.
Occurs either in the same flower or another flower of the same plant. Occurs between two flowers on different plants.
Occurs in the flowers which are genetically the same. Occurs between flowers which are genetically different.
Occurs only in perfect flowers. Occurs both in perfect or imperfect flowers.
Causes inner breeding. Causes outer breeding.
Produces limited amounts of pollen grains. Produces large amounts of pollen grains.
Transfers a few numbers of pollen. Transfers large numbers of pollen.
Both the stigma and anther mature at the same time Both the stigma and anther mature at different times
Increases genetic uniformity and decreases genetic variation. Decreases genetic uniformity and increases genetic variation.
No need for pollinators to transfer pollen grains. Require pollinators to transfer pollen grains.

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