Basics Of Blood Relation

Basics of Blood Relation

Blood relations are an integral topic of Reasoning section for different competitive exams like bank exams, CAT, etc. and constitutes nearly (15%-20%) of the total weightage in the reasoning section.

The questions from blood relations are simply related to different family relations i.e. how one is related to someone. These questions can become really easy if one is very much acquainted with the family tree and has solved different variations of blood relation questions.

The family tree is divided into three sides i.e. of paternal, maternal and In-laws sides and a tabular format is given below:

Paternal side Maternal side In-laws side
Grandfather = Father’s Father Maternal Grandfather = Mother’s Father Wife’s grandmother = Grand Mother – in – law
Grandmother = Father’s mother Maternal grandmother = Mother’s mother Wife’s grandmother = Grand Father – in – law
Uncle = Father’s brother Maternal uncle = Mother’s brother Wife’s brother = Brother – in –law
Aunt = Father’s sister / Uncle’s Wife Aunt = Mother’s sister / Maternal Uncle’s Wife


Wife’s sister= Sister– in –law


Cousin = Uncle’s / Aunt’s children Cousin = Maternal uncle’s / Aunt’s children Wife’s Mother = Mother – in – law
Wife’s Father = Father – in – law


Son’s Wife = Daughter– in – law


These are some few relations that are very important to solve the blood relation questions. The blood relation questions are divided into three types i.e. Coded, Single person and Mixed blood relations.

  1. Coded Blood Relations:

These relationships are code based i.e. they are represented as codes or symbols like +,-,*, etc. In these questions, some sentences will be given in coded format and a particular relation will be asked from an equation like for example:

If L + M means L is the mother of M; L x M means L is the father of M; L $ M, means L is the brother of  M and L @ M means L is the sister of M then which of the following means C is the son of  A?

  1. A + B @ C @ D
  2. A + B * C @ D
  3. A x B $ C @ D
  4. A x B $ C $ D
  5. None of these


A x B means A is the mother of B [-A, ±B]

B $ C means B is the brother of C [+B, ±C]

C $ D means C is the brother of D [+C, ±D]

So, C is the son of A and hence the equation “A x B $ C $ D” satisfies this.

  1. Single Person Blood Relation:

The single person blood relations are those where the relation is between two people only. These questions are classified into two types i.e. direct and indirect single person blood relation. These questions include a sentence and questions are asked about different relations like for example:

Showing a portrait of a man, Niki says,” His mother’s only daughter is my mother”. How is that man in the portrait related to Niki?


From the sentence, it is clear that Niki’s mother is the sister of the man in the portrait. Thus, the man is the Uncle of Niki.

  1. Mixed Blood Relation:

When the relation involves two or more mutual relations, it is called Mixed Blood Relation and in these questions also a statement is given and a particular relation are asked from that statement like for example:

In a family, P and Q are brothers while R and S are sisters. If P’s son is S’s brother then how is Q and R related?


These questions can be solved by sketching the given relations i.e.
Mixed Blood Relation

The diagram has two rows because the relation is related to two generation. So, from the diagram, it is clearly evident that P is S’s father and hence Q is R’s uncle as father’s brother is always uncle.

In these questions, it is very important to draw the figure accurately else the answer will never come.

In blood relation, “+’ always signifies male while “-” always represent a female. The number of rows in the diagram depends upon the total number of generation the statement is referring to. It is always advisable to draw the diagram while solving the blood relation questions, though some people may have their own personal styles for solving like for example, some people feel easy by referring the questions to their own family. This totally depends on person to person and so developing a personal style is also very important.

The blood relation is a topic which can give some trouble or fetch some easy marks in the reasoning section of different exams like CAT, SBI exams, IBPS exams, etc. and so this section should be prepared well and practicing different variations of questions from all the types is very important to build the confidence to solve these questions easily.