Nutrients are required by the body for proper functioning. They maintain our brain, skin, bones, muscles, nerves, etc. Some nutrients are required in higher amounts and are known as macronutrients, while a few are required in smaller amounts and are known as micronutrients.
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Let us have a detailed look at the different aspects of the micronutrients required by the human and plant body for its growth and development.
What are Micronutrients?
Micronutrients are nutrients that are required by the body in lesser amounts for its growth and development. They play a major role in the metabolic activities of the body. These include vitamins and minerals.
Since our body cannot produce vitamins and minerals, they are taken externally from different food products. The micronutrient content for every food is different; therefore, it is advisable to eat varieties of food for enough vitamin and mineral consumption.
These micronutrients help in preventing and fighting certain diseases. However, they should be taken in adequate quantities: excess intake or inadequate intake results in several disorders such as visual impairment, mental retardation, etc.
Types of Micronutrients
Micronutrients, i.e., vitamins and minerals can be divided into the following types:
Most of the vitamins can be dissolved in water. They are difficult to store in the body and get flushed out in urine when consumed in large quantities. They play an important role in producing energy. Since they are not stored in the body, it is important to take them enough from different food sources.
These vitamins do not dissolve in water. These are stored in the liver and fatty tissues for future use. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are important fat-soluble vitamins. They play a major role in the proper functioning of the immune system, proper bone development, proper vision, and protection of cells from damage.
These are required in higher amounts as compared to the trace minerals. The important macrominerals and their functions include:
- Calcium- For the proper structure and function of bones.
- Phosphorus – Cell membrane structure
- Magnesium- Enzyme reactions
- Sodium- Fluid balance and maintenance of blood pressure
- Chloride- Maintains fluid balance and formation of digestive juices.
- Potassium- Nerve impulse transmission and muscle function.
- Sulphur- present in all the living tissues
These are required in very small amounts, but perform various important functions in our body. Iron, manganese, copper, zinc, iodine, fluoride, and selenium are some of the important trace minerals required by the body.
Also Read: Nutrition In Human Beings
Micronutrients In Plants
There are seven essential micronutrients in plants. Some nutrients control the permeability of a cell membrane and some other control the osmotic pressure, buffer action, etc.
Boron (B), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Molybdenum (Mo), Chlorine (Cl) are some of the important micronutrients in plants. Lack of any of these nutrients affects growth and development.
Boron is found in tourmaline- a highly insoluble mineral and it is essential for proper forming and strengthening of the cell wall. Boron plays an important role in flowering, fruiting, cell division and pollen germination. Deficiency of boron results in reduced seed and grain production. Boron deficiencies generally occur during drought periods. Excess supply or availability of boron is also harmful to the plant.
Zinc is an essential element which helps in photosynthesis, energy production and regulation of growth. Zinc deficiency may cause slower maturity and reduction in the size of the leaf. Zinc deficiencies often occur during the cold, wet spring season.
Manganese is essential for photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. Premature leaf drop and delayed maturity are the symptoms of manganese deficiency. Manganese is abundant in wet soils, whereas dry soil has limited manganese.
Iron is essential for energy transfer, nitrogen reduction, and fixation. Iron, along with sulfur, acts as a catalyst in the formation of other reactions. Yellow leaves are the symptom of Iron deficiency.
Copper is essential for proper photosynthesis, grain production and to the strengthening of a cell wall. Stunted growth, yellow leaves are the symptoms of copper deficiency. There will not be enough copper in many soils.
Molybdenum is responsible for pollen formation. It is also responsible for nitrogen fixation. Reduced fruit or grain growth are the symptoms of Molybdenum deficiency. Sandy soils in the humid region are the places where zinc deficiencies are found.
Chlorine is the nutrient which helps in osmosis and ionic balance. It also plays a key role in the process of photosynthesis. Decreased resistance, reduced plant growth are the symptoms of chlorine deficiency.
Deficiency of Micronutrients in Plants
Following are the symptoms that mark the deficiency of micronutrients in plants:
|Boron||Chlorosis, leaf deformation with patches of discolouration|
|Chlorine||Chlorosis, wilting of leaves|
|Copper||Overall chlorosis, twisting of leaf tips, turgor loss in young leaves|
|Iron||Chlorosis between the veins of the new leaves|
|Molybdenum||Chlorosis of oldest leaves|
|Manganese||Chlorosis between the veins of the new leaves|
|Zinc||Reduced growth of young leaves than normal|
Common micronutrient deficiencies found in humans are:
|Goitre, mental retardation||Iodine deficiency|
|Rickets, bone loss, muscle weakness||Vitamin D deficiency|
|Megaloblastic anaemia, impaired brain function||Vitamin B12 deficiency|
|Impaired vision, blindness||Vitamin A deficiency|
|Muscle cramps, fatigue||Magnesium deficiency|
Also Read: Role of micronutrients and macronutrients
Key Points Of Micronutrients
- Micronutrients are the elements required by us in small quantities.
- Iron, cobalt, chromium, iodine, copper, zinc, molybdenum are some of the micronutrients.
- Deficiency of any of the nutrients affects growth and development.
- Micronutrients in plants are beneficial for balanced nutrition of crops. These support all the biological functions of a plant.
- Their deficiency leads to stunted growth, chlorosis, necrosis, delayed maturity, and senescence.
- The micronutrients in plants bind actively to the soil particles and are highly soluble under acidic conditions.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are micronutrients?
Micronutrients are the groups of nutrients required by our body in small amounts. These include vitamins and minerals which are essential for growth and energy production in our body.
What are the micronutrients required by the plants?
The micronutrients required by the plants include boron, manganese, copper, iron, molybdenum, calcium, zinc, nickel and chloride.
What is the difference between macronutrients and micronutrients?
Macronutrients are the nutrients required by our body in large amounts. Examples include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, antioxidants, fibre, and water. On the contrary, micronutrients are the nutrients required by our body in small amounts. Vitamins and minerals are considered micronutrients.
What are the different types of micronutrients required by our body?
The different types of micronutrients required by our body include water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, trace minerals, and macrominerals.
What are some of the micronutrient deficiencies?
Micronutrient deficiencies are caused by the lack of vitamins and minerals in the body. Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutrient deficiency. The deficiencies of zinc and vitamin A affect the growth and the immunity of a person.
What happens if we are nutrient deficient?
Nutrient deficiency includes digestion problems, skin disorders, stunted growth and even dementia. This happens when our body does not absorb enough nutrients from food.
What is the function of iron in our body?
Iron helps in the production of blood in our body. About 70% of the iron in our body is found in red blood cells and muscle cells.