Molecular Biology

Molecular biology is a specialized branch of biology and biochemistry, which is specifically concerned with the study of various biological activities at the molecular level.

Molecular biology includes different biomolecules like amino acids, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, along with their compositions, interactions, structure, and functions in the life processes.

The term “Molecular Biology” was coined by an American scientist, Warren Weaver in the year 1938. As per the records, the discovery of molecular biology began in the early 1940s and its fundamental development took place in the year 1953, during the invention of the double-helical structure of the DNA molecule by the two molecular biologists named James Watson and Francis Crick.

Important Topics in Molecular Biology

Genes Cell Division
Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA Cloning
Central Dogma Gene Regulation
Recombinant DNA Technology Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Transcription of Genes Mutations
DNA Structure Structure of RNA
Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Transcription Regulation of Transcription in Prokaryotes

What is Molecular Biology?

Molecular biology is the study of living things at their molecular level, which controls and makes them up. It is also used to study and understand:

  • The molecular pathways within the cells
  • How do living things interact with the populations?
  • How do proteins and nucleic acids interact with the biomolecules?

The study of molecular biology will establish a strong foundation on the fundamental importance of macromolecular mechanisms such as replication, transcription, translation and other cellular functions. The more commonly used molecular biology techniques include- Polymerase Chain Reaction, Electrophoresis, Restriction Digestion, Blotting, Cloning, etc.

The important topics covered in this subject are nucleic acids – DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in cells. Molecular biology is a branch of biology that is also closely related to other sub-disciplines like biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, and genomics.

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