When talking about water pollution in India, we generally speak of the major river of India i.e. Ganga. It is the largest river in India which is known for its religious importance for Hindus. This river flows in Varanasi and Patna. Every day around 2 million people take a bath in the holy river Ganga and approx. three to four hundred million inhabitants’ lives on the bank of river Ganga.
What is Water Pollution?
Water pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies like lakes, ponds, rivers, oceans, etc. The pollution is mainly caused when the impurities are discharged directly or indirectly into the clean and freshwater bodies without proper treatment.
The main causes of water pollution in the river Ganga are:
Every morning about thousands of remains of dead bodies is released into the river as many crematory Ghats are on its banks. On a daily basis, about one billion liters of untreated sewage is dumped into the river. Food, domestic wastes, and industrial wastes are also thrown in the river. At some point, river Ganga cannot handle the impurities and as an effect of water pollution, it becomes a dead river in some areas. The dead river means that there are no living creatures present in the river. Due to the presence of toxins, no life including the fishes and other aquatic organisms can survive in that dangerous water. In this area, we cannot recycle the river water and use it. After some surveys, it came into notice that river Ganga is polluted too much and a step is needed to be taken for its recovery. In 1985, Government of India launched a Ganga action plan to save this river. A majority of waste comes in Ganga because of the sewage waste and the ritualistic bath is taken in the Ganga.
List of Water Pollutants
Water pollution can be caused by several pathogens, inorganic compounds, organic material, and macroscopic pollutants. Apart from these, point source and nonpoint sources are also considered as the list of water pollution.
Types of water pollution
In general, there are many types of water pollution. Along with the man made, water pollution is also called by the natural phenomenon. Listed below are few different types of water pollution:
- Pollution from Urbanization: Rapid urbanization in India in the past few decades gave rise to various environmental issues like water supply, wastewater generation and its collection, treatment, and disposal.
- Agricultural runoff and improper agricultural practices: Traces of fertilizers and pesticides are dissolved in the nearest river water during the monsoons and heavy showers.
- Withdrawal of water: Sewage and water effluents are carried along with the flow of water in the river polluting it.
- Religious and Social practices: Ritual bathes and release of dead bodies remains into the river water pollutes the water to some extent.
- Chemical Water pollution from Industries: Toxic substances and some wastes are directly or indirectly discharged in the river water which pollutes the river and causes environmental pollution.
Examples of water pollution
Here is the list of most polluted rivers of India.
- Yamuna River –Delhi
- Mithi River -Mumbai
- Cooum River –Chennai
- Musi River -Hyderabad
- Mula-Mutha River -Pune
- Ganges River -Allahabad
- Sabarmati River –Ahmedabad
- Vrishabhavathi River -Bangalore
This was a brief introduction of water pollution and its causes with the help of Ganga River. To know more about water pollution and its effect on the environment, stay tuned with BYJU’S.