Water pollution means contamination of water bodies like lakes, rivers, oceans, etc. It occurs when a lot of impurities is discharged directly or indirectly into the water bodies without proper treatment. When talking about water pollution in India we speak of the major river of India i.e. Ganga. It is the largest river in India which is known for its religious importance for Hindus. This river flows in Varanasi and Patna. Every day around 2 million people takes a bath in the river Ganga. Approx four hundred million inhabitants more than the population of some countries lives on the bank of river Ganga.
Causes of water pollution in the river Ganga:
Every morning about thousands of remains of dead bodies is released into the river thinking that their soul will rest in peace. On a daily basis, about one billion litres of untreated sewage are dumped into the river. Food, domestic wastes and industrial wastes are also thrown in the river. At some point, river Ganga cannot handle the impurities and as an effect of water pollution, it becomes a dead river in some areas. The dead river means that there are no living creatures present in the river. No fish and other aquatic organisms can survive in that dangerous water. In this area, we cannot recycle the river water and use it. After some surveys, it came into notice that river Ganga is polluted too much and a step is needed to be taken for its recovery. In 1985, Government of India launched Ganga action plan to save this river. A majority of waste comes in Ganga because of the sewage waste and the ritualistic bath taken in the Ganga.
In general, there are five major causes of water pollution:
1) Urbanisation: Rapid urbanisation in India in the past few decades gave rise to various environmental issues like water supply, waste water generation and its collection, treatment and disposal.
2) Agricultural runoff and improper agricultural practices: Traces of fertilizers and pesticides are dissolved in the nearest river water during the monsoons and heavy showers.
3) Withdrawal of water: Sewage and water effluents are carried along with the flow of water in the river polluting it.
4) Religious and Social practices: Ritual bathes and release of dead bodies remains in the river water pollutes the river water to some extent.
5) Industries: Toxic substances and some wastes are directly or indirectly discharged in the river water which pollutes the river and causes environmental pollution.
This was a brief layout about water pollution and its causes with the help of Ganga river. To know more about it and how does it affect the environment watch the video.