Scientific Methods


The Scientific method is a process with the help of which scientists try to investigate, verify or construct an accurate and reliable version of any natural phenomena. They are done by creating an objective framework for the purpose of scientific enquiry and analyzing the results scientifically to come to a conclusion which either supports or contradicts the observation made at the beginning.

Different scientific methods Steps:

The aim of all scientific methods is same, that is, to analyze the observation made at the beginning but there are various steps adopted as per the requirement of any given observation. However, there is a generally accepted sequence of steps of scientific methods.

Scientific Method
  1. Observation and formulation of a question: This is the first step of a scientific method. In order to start one, an observation has to be made into any observable aspect or phenomena of the universe and a question needs to be asked pertaining to that aspect. For example, you can ask, “Why is the sky black at night? or “Why is air invisible?”
  1. Data Collection and Hypothesis: The next step involved in scientific method is to collect all related data and formulate a hypothesis based on the observation. The hypothesis could be the cause of the phenomena, its effect or its relation to any other phenomena.
  1. Testing the hypothesis: After the hypothesis is made, it needs to be tested scientifically. Scientists do this by conducting experiments. The aim of these experiments is to determine whether the hypothesis agrees with or contradicts the observations made in the real world. The confidence in the hypothesis increases or decreases based on the result of the experiments.
  1. Analysis and Conclusion: This step involves the use of proper mathematical and other scientific procedures to determine the results of the experiment. Based on the analysis, the future course of action can be determined. If the data found in the analysis is consistent with the hypothesis, it is accepted. If not, then it is rejected or modified and analysed again.

It must be remembered that a hypothesis cannot be proved or disproved by doing one experiment. It needs to be done repeatedly until there are no discrepancies in the data and the result. When there are no discrepancies and the  hypothesis is proved beyond any doubt, it is accepted as a ‘theory’.

Stay tuned with Byju’s to learn more about scientific methods, Avogadro’s hypothesis and much more.

Practise This Question

Observation 1: Try to stop a ball coming towards you, so as to save a boundary, by applying a force of some magnitude in the opposite direction of the motion of the ball.

Observation 2: In this case apply the force of the same magnitude but in the same direction of the motion of the ball.

In observation 1, the boy saves a boundary by applying a force opposite to the direction of motion, but in observation 2, the change in direction of force cost the team 4 runs as the change in direction of force pushed the ball further to the boundary.

So, the change in the effect of a force can be experienced by a change in its direction as well as magnitude. The above statement is:-