**Experiments**

1. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material.

2. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.

3. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.

4. To compare the emf ’s of two given primary cells using potentiometer.

5. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.

6. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance of figure of merit) into an ammeter and voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.

8. To find the frequency of the ac mains with a sonometer.

**Activities**

1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.

2. To measure resistance, voltage (ac/dc), current (ac) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.

3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.

4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.

5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.

6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.

**Experiments**

1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.

2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.

3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.

4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.

5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between the angle of incidence and the angle of deviation.

6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.

7. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror.

8. To draw the I-V characteristics curves of a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.

9. To draw the characteristics curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.

10. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.

**Activities**

1. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items.

2. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor, (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors, (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED, (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor or IC) is in working order.

3. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.

4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.

5. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids.

6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.

7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).

8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.

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