Synchrotron

What is a synchrotron?

A Synchrotron is a cyclotron wherein the strength of magnetic field increases with the energy of particles to maintain their orbital radius constant. It’s an incredibly powerful source of X-rays. These are generated by high electrons moving in a large circle of the synchrotron.

The whole world of synchrotron science is based on a physical phenomenon, i.e., a moving electron changes its direction emits energy. As the electron moves fast enough, the energy emitted is of X-ray wavelength.

How does a synchrotron work?

A synchrotron machine accelerates electrons at extremely high energy and then makes them change direction periodically. The resulting X-rays are emitted in dozens of thin beams, each directed towards a beamline next to the accelerator. The machine operates with periodic short and long shutdowns day and night.

Principal Structures

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Storage Ring

The circumference of the storage ring is 844 meters where the electrons circle for hours. Very low pressure is maintained in the tube (around 10-9 mbar). As the electrons keep moving around the ring, they pass through different types of magnets and produce X-rays.

Booster synchrotron

It is a 300-meter long pre-accelerator. Here the electrons are accelerated by an energy of 6 billion electron-volts before being injected into the storage ring. The booster synchrotron works only a few times a day for a few minutes when the storage ring is refilled.

Linac

The electrons for the storage ring are produced here in an electric gun, a device similar to the cathode ray tubes found in computer screens.

Beamlines

The electrons that emit X-ray beams are directed towards beamlines that surround the storage ring. Each beamline is designed with a particular technique of research. Experiments over here run throughout the day and night.
For more information about Synchrotron and its applications, please visit www.Byju’s.com

Practise This Question

A cubical block of side 'a' is moving with a velocity 'v' on a smooth horizontal plane as shown in the figure. It hits a ridge at point O. The angular speed of the block after it hits O is: