What are X-Rays?
We can define X-Rays or X-Radiation as a form of electromagnetic radiation. They are powerful waves of electromagnetic energy. Most of them have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. Some properties of X-Rays are provided below.
Who invented the X-Ray?
German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen is typically credited for the discovery of X-Rays in 1895 because he was the first to comprehensively study them, though he is not thought to be the first to have seen and perceived their effects.
They were found emanating from Crookes tubes, experimental discharge tubes invented around 1875, by scientists looking into the cathode rays, that is energetic electron beams, that were first formed in the tubes.
How do X-Rays work?
They are produced when high-velocity electrons collide with the metal plates, thereby giving the energy as the X-Rays and themselves absorbed by the metal plate.
- The X-Ray beam travels through the air and comes in contact with the body tissues, and produces an image on a metal film.
- Soft tissue like organs and skin, cannot absorb the high-energy rays, and the beam passes through them.
- Dense materials inside our bodies, like bones, absorb the radiation.
Much like a camera, the X-Ray film develops depending on the areas which were exposed to the X-Rays. White areas show the denser tissues, such as bones which have absorbed the X-Rays whereas black areas on an X-Ray represent areas where the X-Rays have passed through soft tissues.
Properties of X-Rays
The X-Rays properties are given below:
- They have are a shorter wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum.
- Requires high voltage to produce X-Rays.
- Used to capture the human skeleton defects.
- They travel in a straight line and do not carry an electric charge with them.
- They are capable of traveling in the vacuum.
Types of X-Rays
Medical science recognizes different types of X-Rays. But some important types of X-Rays are given in the points below.
- Standard Computed Tomography
- Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder X-ray
- Teeth and bones X-rays
- Chest X-rays
- Lungs X-rays
- Abdomen X-rays
Since the discovery of X-Radiation, they are used in the various field and for various purposes. Some uses of X-Ray are given below.
- Medical Science
They are used for medical purposes to detect the breakage in human bones.
They are used as a scanner to scan the luggage of passengers in airports, rail terminals, and other places.
It is emitted by celestial objects are studied to understand the environment.
It is widely used to detect the defects in the welds.
They are used to restore old paintings.
If you wish to learn more physics concepts with the help of interactive video lessons, download BYJU’S – The Learning App.