A battery is an electronic device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy to provide a static electrical charge for power. Whereas a capacitor is an electronic component that stores electrostatic energy in an electric field. Both the capacitor and battery perform the same function of storing and releasing an energy, however, there are essential differences between capacitor and battery in the way they function. Given below in the table are the differences between a capacitor and a battery considering factors such as temperature, voltage and life cycle.
Capacitor vs Battery
|The potential energy is stored in the electric field||The potential energy is stored in the form of chemical energy which is later converted to electric energy|
|It is a passive component of a circuit||It is an active component of a circuit|
|Lower energy density than a battery||It has a better energy density than a capacitor|
|Charging and discharging rates are faster than a battery because it stores energy directly on to the plates||Charging and discharging rates comparatively slower because of the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy|
|Discharges instantaneously||Runs for a longer time|
|Voltage decreases rapidly while discharging||Provides a constant voltage|
|Higher cost||Comparatively cheaper than a capacitor|
|A capacitor is composed of thin sheet metals held close together or separated by an insulator||Composed of metals and chemicals|
Although both batteries and capacitors perform the same function of storing energy, the main difference between them lies in the way they perform this task. Battery store and distribute energy linearly while capacitors store and distribute energy in short bursts. At BYJU’S, learn more differences like the difference between npn and pnp transistor.