An electric dipole is a pair of two objects having equal and opposite charges, separated by a distance.

## What is Electric Dipole?

Suppose there are two charges of equal magnitude ‘q’, separated by a distance‘d’. Let the first charge be negative and the second charge be positive. This combination can be called as an **electric dipole**. Therefore, we can say that an electric dipole is created by the combination of equal and opposite charges by a separation of a certain distance.

Now, the electric dipole moment for this pair of equal and opposite charges is equal to the magnitude of the charges multiplied by the distance between them.

## Magnitude of Electric Dipole Moment

\( \overrightarrow{p} \) = \( q \overrightarrow {d} \)

## Direction of Electric Dipole Moment

### Electric potential due to a Dipole (V)

Suppose there are two charges –q, placed at A, and +q placed a B, separated by a distance d, forming a dipole. Suppose the midpoint of AB is O.

The Electric potential due to a dipole at any point P, such that OP = r will be:

V = \(\frac{1}{4\pi \epsilon } \frac{p\cos \Theta }{r^{2}}\)

Case 1: If θ = 90°

Electric potential = V = 0

Case 2: If θ = 0°

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