Electric Dipole moment is the measure of the polarity of the system. It is the separation of positive charge and a negative charge by a distance. The **SI unit** **of electric dipole moment is** **Coulomb-meter**. The simplest example is a pair electric charge of two opposite sign and equal magnitude separated by distance.

## What is Electric Dipole?

Suppose there are two charges of equal magnitude â€˜qâ€™, separated by a distance â€˜dâ€™. Let the first charge be negative and the second charge be positive. This combination can be called as an **electric dipole**. Therefore, we can say that an electric dipole is created by the combination of equal and opposite charges by a separation of a certain distance.

Now, the electric dipole moment for this pair of equal and opposite charges is equal to the magnitude of the charges multiplied by the distance between them.

### Magnitude of Electric Dipole Moment

The magnitude of electric dipole moment can be written as:

## Direction of Electric Dipole Moment

**You may also want to check out these topics given below!**

- Electric Potential Of A Dipole And System Of Charges
- Torque on an Electric Dipole in an Uniform Electric Field
- Magnetic Dipole Moment

### Electric potential due to a Dipole (V)

Suppose there are two charges â€“q, placed at A, and +q placed a B, separated by a distance d, forming a dipole. Suppose the midpoint of AB is O.

*The Electric potential due to a dipole at any point P, such that OP = r will be:*

V = \(\frac{1}{4\pi \epsilon } \frac{p cos \theta }{r^{2}}\) |

**Case 1:** If Î¸ = 90Â°

Electric potential = V = 0Â |

**Case 2:** If Î¸ = 0Â°

Electric potential = V = \(\frac{1}{4\pi \epsilon } \frac{p }{r^{2}}\)Â |

## Frequently Asked Questions on Electric Dipole

#### What is the net force acting on a dipole placed in a uniform electric field?

The forces on the two charges constituting dipole are equal and opposite. Hence the net force is zero.

#### What is the SI unit of dipole moment?

The SI unit of dipole moment is Coulomb.meter

#### When is the torque on a dipole is maximum?

When the axis of the dipole is perpendicular to the field.

#### When is the torque on a dipole is minimum?

When the axis of the dipole is parallel to the field.

#### When an electric dipole is in stable equilibrium in an electric field?

When dipole moment is parallel to the electric field.

#### What is the electric dipole moment?

It is the measure of the strength of electric dipole. Its magnitude is equal to the product of the magnitude of any one charge and the distance between them.

#### Give an example for the electric dipole?

A pair electric charge of two opposite sign and equal magnitude separated by a distance.

#### Give the expression for the magnitude of an electric dipole?

p = 2qa

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