Electric Dipole moment is the measure of the polarity of the system. It is the separation of positive charge and a negative charge by a distance. The SI unit of electric dipole moment is Coulomb-meter. The simplest example is a pair of electric charges of two opposite signs and equal magnitude separated by distance.
What is Electric Dipole?
Suppose there are two charges of equal magnitude ‘q’, separated by a distance, d. Let the first charge be negative and the second charge be positive. This combination can be called an electric dipole. Therefore, we can say that an electric dipole is created by the combination of equal and opposite charges by a separation of a certain distance.
Now, the electric dipole moment for this pair of equal and opposite charges is equal to the magnitude of the charges multiplied by the distance between them.
Magnitude of Electric Dipole Moment
The magnitude of electric dipole moment can be written as:
Direction of Electric Dipole Moment
You may also want to check out these topics given below!
- Electric Potential Of A Dipole And System Of Charges
- Torque on an Electric Dipole in an Uniform Electric Field
- Magnetic Dipole Moment
Electric potential due to a Dipole (V)
Suppose there are two charges –q, placed at A, and +q placed a B, separated by a distance d, forming a dipole. Suppose the midpoint of AB is O.
The Electric potential due to a dipole at any point P, such that OP = r will be:
Case 1: If θ = 90°
Case 2: If θ = 0°
Frequently Asked Questions on Electric Dipole
What is the net force acting on a dipole placed in a uniform electric field?
The forces on the two charges constituting the dipole are equal and opposite. Hence, the net force is zero.
What is the SI unit of the dipole moment?
The SI unit of dipole moment is Coulomb.meter
When is the torque on a dipole maximum?
When is the axis of the dipole perpendicular to the field?
When is the torque on a dipole minimum?
When is the axis of the dipole parallel to the field?
When is an electric dipole in stable equilibrium in an electric field?
When is the dipole moment parallel to the electric field?
What is the electric dipole moment?
It is the measure of the strength of electric dipole. Its magnitude is equal to the product of the magnitude of any one charge and the distance between them.
Give an example of the electric dipole.
A pair electric charge of two opposite signs and equal magnitude separated by a distance.
Give the expression for the magnitude of an electric dipole?
p = 2qa
Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more Physics concepts with the help of interactive video lessons.