A magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field. More precisely, a magnetic moment refers to a magnetic dipole moment, the component of magnetic moment that can be represented by a magnetic dipole. A magnetic dipole is a magnetic north pole and a magnetic south pole separated by a small distance.

Magnetic dipole moments have dimensions of current times area or energy divided by magnetic flux density. The unit for dipole moment in metre–kilogram– second–ampere is ampere-square metre. The unit in centimetre–gram–second electromagnetic system, is the erg (unit of energy) per gauss (unit of magnetic flux density). One thousand ergs per gauss equal one ampere-square metre.

## Derivation of Magnetic Dipole Moment Formula

Magnetic Dipole moment- The magnetic field, **B** due to a current loop carrying a current i of radius, R at a distance l along its axis is given by:

B = \( \frac {μ_0 i R^2}{2(R^2~+~l^2 )^{\frac32}}\)

Now if we consider a point very far from the current loop such that l>>R, then we can approximate the field as:

B = \( \frac{μ_0 i R^2}{2l^3 \left( \left(\frac{R}{l} \right)^2~+~1\right)^\frac 32 }\)

Now, the area of the loop, A is

A = \( πR^2 \)

Thus, the magnetic field can be written as

B = \( \frac {μ_0}{4π} \frac {2i A}{l^3} \)

We can write this new quantity μ as a vector that points along the magnetic field, so that

**\( \overrightarrow{B}\) = \( \frac {μ_0}{4π} \frac {2 \overrightarrow{μ}}{l^3}\)**

Notice the astounding similarity to the electric dipole field:

**\( \overrightarrow{E}\) = \( \frac {1}{4 \pi \epsilon_0} \frac {2 \overrightarrow {p}}{r^3}\)**

Thus we call this quantity \(\overrightarrow{μ}\)

Most elementary particles behave intrinsically as magnetic dipoles. For example, the electron itself behaves as a magnetic dipole and has a Spin Magnetic Dipole moment. This magnetic moment is intrinsic as the electron has neither an area A (it is a point object) nor does it spin around itself but is fundamental to the nature of the electron’s existence.

We can generalize the magnetic moment for ‘N’ turns of the wire loop as

**μ = NiA**

The magnetic field lines of a current loop look similar to that of an idealized electric dipole:

If you have ever broken a magnet into two parts, you would have found that each piece forms a new magnet. The new pieces also contain a north and a south pole. You just can’t seem to be able to obtain just a North Pole. Can you find the answer in this article?

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