Electricity and magnetism are one of the most interesting topics in physics. In this article, we will learn about the concepts of magnetism and electricity and the relationship between them. we will also learn interesting concepts related to them like electron movement, conductors, semiconductor and insulators, magnetic field, etc.
What is Electricity?
Electricity is the presence and motion of charged particles. How does energy travel through copper wire and through space? What is electric current, electromotive force, and what makes a landing light turn on or a hydraulic pump motor run? Each of these questions requires an understanding of many basic principles. By adding one basic idea on top of other basic ideas, it becomes possible to answer most of the interesting and practical questions about electricity or electronics. Our understanding of electric current must begin with the nature of matter. All matter is composed of molecules. All molecules are made up of atoms, which are themselves made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
These are materials that do not conduct electrical current very well or not at all. Good examples of these are glass, ceramic, and plastic. Under normal conditions, atoms in these materials do not produce free electrons. The absence of the free electrons means that electrical current cannot be conducted through the material. Only when the material is in an extremely strong electrical field will the outer electrons be dislodged. This action is called breakdown and usually causes physical damage to the insulator.
What is Magnetism?
Magnetism is a concept introduced in physics to help you understand one of the fundamental interactions in nature, the interaction between moving charges. Like the gravitational force and the electrostatic force, the magnetic force is an interaction at a distance.
What is a Magnetic Field?
Difference between Electricity and Magnetism
There are numerous ways by which we can differentiate between magnetism and electricity. Some main electricity and magnetism differences are given in the points mentioned below.
- The major difference between electricity and magnetism is the presence of magnetism.
- Electricity can be present in a static charge, while magnetism’s presence is only felt when there are moving charges as a result of electricity.
- In simple words, electricity can exist without magnetism, but magnetism cannot exist without electricity.
Important Questions On Electricity And Magnetism
Q1. What are the types of electricity?
Ans: There are basically two types of electricity:
- Static electricity: This is generated by rubbing two materials together as the electric charges are present on the surface.
- Current electricity: This is generated by flowing the electric charges through the conductor.
Q2. What are the sources of electricity?
Ans: The various sources of electricity are solar energy, fossil fuels, nuclear power, wind energy and hydroelectric power.
Q3. What are the uses of electricity?
Ans: Electricity is used in the following ways:
- In entertainment: Like in televisions, MP3 players, and playing movies in DVDs.
- In healthcare: All the surgical operations are carried out with the help of electricity as the equipment doesn’t work without electricity.
- In household: Devices like a refrigerator, toasters, etc use electricity.
Q4. Who discovered electricity?
Ans: Benjamin Franklin discovered electricity.
Q5. How to measure electricity with units?
Ans: Electricity is measured in terms of a watt.
Q6. What is the unit of the magnetic field?
Ans: Magnetic field is denoted by B and H. The SI unit of H is amperes per meter and the SI unit of B is Newtons per meter per ampere or teslas.
Q7. What is the basic law of magnetism?
Ans: The basic law of magnetism is that the unlike poles attract and like poles repel.
Q8. What is electromagnetism?
Ans: Electromagnetism is associated with electric charges and the magnetic fields.
Q9. What is Faraday’s law of electromagnetism?
Ans: Faraday’s law of electromagnetism explains how magnetic field and electric charge interact to produce EMF (electromotive force).
Q10. Who discovered electromagnetism?
Ans: Hans Christian Oersted discovered electromagnetism.
Q11. What are the properties of magnetic field lines?
Ans: Following are the properties of magnetic field lines:
- The flow of field lines within the magnet is from south pole to north pole and from north pole to south pole in the air.
- As the distance between the poles increases, their density decreases.
- All the field lines have the same strength.
- The field lines never cross-over each other.
- The field lines always form a closed loop.
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