The molecules in solids are bonded together such that the molecules cannot move around freely but they do vibrate, and these vibration are random, particle exert a force on each other, and thus they attain kinetic energy due to motion and potential energy due to the interaction.

Temperature of a body is the measure of average kinetic energy of a body.

**absolute zero.**This is the lowest possible temperature in our universe and no object could be cooled to this temperature, it is equivalent to -273 degree Celsius or 0 Kelvin. These two scales of temperature can be converted with the following expression,

*Temperature in Kelvin = Temperature in degree Celsius + 273*

As absolute zero is equal to 0 in the Kelvin scale, it is also known as the absolute scale.

In a gas the particles are always in a state of random motion, all the particles move at different speed constantly colliding and changing their speed and direction,

RMS or Root Mean Square method, squaring the velocity and then taking a square root we can overcome the “direction” component of velocity and still get the average velocity. Since we have removed the direction component, it is no longer average velocity, rather we can call it average speed, and the equation for RMS speed is given as follows,

\( v_{rms} \)

Where v_{rms}is the root-mean-square velocity, M is the molar mass of the gas (Kg/mole), R is molar gas constant, and T is temperature in Kelvin.

We can see that v_{rms} reduces as the temperature approaches absolute zero.

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