# Logical Reasoning

Logical Reasoning is a part of almost all major Government exams conducted in the country and is one of the most scoring sections as well. Candidates who are preparing for the upcoming competitive exams can find all topics, tips and some sample questions related to Logical reasoning in this article.

Aptitude exams are an inseparable part of all the entrance exams of public sectors in India. The aptitude exams in India has mainly two sections:

1. Quantitative Aptitude
2. Logical Reasoning

For most competitive exams, the Reasoning Ability section comprises two variety of questions. These two types include logical reasoning and analytical reasoning. In this article, we shall discuss at length about the topics included in logical reasoning along with tips to solve it and a few sample questions for your reference.

## What is Logical Reasoning?

Logical reasoning consists of aptitude questions which require a logical level of analysis to arrive at the correct solution. Most of the questions are constructed based on concepts and the rest are out of the box thinking ones.

Logical reasoning is classified into two types:

1. Verbal Reasoning: It is the ability to logically understand the concepts and solve problems expressed in words. Verbal reasoning tests the ability of extraction of information and implications in a sentence.
2. Non-verbal Reasoning: It is the ability to logically understand the concepts and solve problems expressed in numbers/letters/figures in combination with words. Non-verbal reasoning tests the ability of deduction and induction of logic of information and implications in a problem.

The logical reasoning section is one such, which is included in almost all major Government exams. A large part of reasoning syllabus can be divided into the two above-mentioned types.

 Ace the Logical Reasoning part by solving more and more Practise Papers and Mock Tests on a regular basis. Refer to the links given below:

## Steps To Solve Logical Reasoning Based Questions

Listed below are some of the steps to solve Logical Reasoning questions and answers:

1. Read and understand the information carefully.
2. Analyze critical logical information.
3. Think of all the possible solutions.
4. Compare the answer obtained with other possibilities.
5. Come to a correct logical conclusion.

The topics included in the logical reasoning section comprise of the following type of questions:

• Verbal Questions – These type of questions can be solved verbally and no pen-paper solution is required
• Image-Based Questions – Mirror images or paper construction based images may be given in the question and candidates may be asked to find similar or dissimilar figures
• Puzzle Questions – This includes seating arrangement or arranging people/days/months/places, etc. in different formats
• Sequence Questions – In such questions a series or sequence of people/numbers/alphabets, etc. may be given and questions based on the same may be asked

## List of Topics under the Logical Reasoning Section

Aspirants need to study all the below topics under the Logical Reasoning section:

1. Alphanumeric series
2. Reasoning Analogies
3. Artificial Language
4. Blood Relations
5. Calendars
6. Cause and Effect
7. Clocks
8. Coding-Decoding
9. Critical path
10. Cubes and cuboids
11. Data Sufficiency
12. Decision Making
13. Deductive Reasoning/Statement Analysis
14. Dices
15. Directions
16. Embedded Images
17. Figure Matrix
18. Input-Output
19. Mirror and Water Images
20. Odd One Out
21. Picture Series and Sequences
22. Paper Folding
23. Puzzles
24. Pattern Series and Sequences
25. Order & Ranking
26. Seating Arrangements
27. Shape Construction
28. Statement and Assumptions
29. Statement and Conclusions
30. Syllogism

Candidates can go through the video explanation of the Non-Verbal reasoning to gain conceptual clarity for different types of logical reasoning questions –

To check the syllabus for various other Government exams, candidates can visit the below-mentioned articles:

### Sample Questions – Logical Reasoning

The key to revise a topic well and understand the concept even better is by solving questions based on them. More number of questions a candidate solves, more familiar he/she gets with the concept.

To prepare yourselves even well for all the topics included in the reasoning ability section, candidates can visit the logical reasoning questions page and get topic-wise questions and solutions to ace the reasoning section.

Also, for the reference of candidates, we have combined a few examples from the different logical reasoning topics and given their solutions so that candidates can solve them and analyses the type of questions which may be asked in this section.

Given below are a few sample questions related to the various topics under Logical Reasoning. Candidadidates can refer to these questions and prepare themselves accordingly.

Directions (Q1-Q2): Based on the alphanumeric series given below, answer the following questions:

Alphanumeric Series: W % ^ K V P 1 I 7 E 0 & 2 9 A F Z N 4 * @ U ? M

Q 1. How many numbers in the series are preceded by a vowel?

1. Four
2. None
3. Two
4. One
5. Three

Answer: (3) Two; 7 is preceded by I and 0 is preceded by E.

Q 2. What is the second element from the right of 7th element from left?

1. K
2. V
3. 1
4. 7
5. ?

Answer: (4) 7; the Seventh element from left is 1 and 2nd element to the right of 1 is 7

Q 3.Â From a certain point, Smriti walks 70 m towards the south. Then, she turns to her right & starts walking straight for another 70 m. Then, again turning to her left he walks for 60 m. She then turns to her left & walks for 70 m. How far is she from the starting point?

1. 120 m
2. 135 m
3. 140 m
4. 130 m
5. 125 m

Answer: (4) 130 m; 70+60 = 130 m

Q 4.Â In a row of persons, the position of Sakshi from the left side of the row is 26th and position of Sakshi from the right side of the row is 35th. Find the total number of students in the row?

1. 67
2. 32
3. 46
4. 60
5. 72

Answer: (4) 60; {26+35-1 = 61-1 = 60}

Q 5.Â In a certain code language, ‘ANIMALS’ is written as ‘SLAMINA’. How is ‘ONLINE’ written in that code?

1. ENILNO
2. OLINEN
3. LNOINE
4. NNLOIE
5. EINONL

Answer: (1)Â ENILNO; The first alphabet is replaced with the last alphabet, the second with second last and so on

Q 6.Â Â A family consists of six members Priya, Qureshi, Raj, Xavi, Yusuf and Zain. Qureshi is the son of Raj but Raj is not mother of Qureshi. Priya and Raj are a married couple. Yusuf is the brother of Raj. Xavi is the daughter of Priya. Zain is the brother of Priya. How many children does Priya have?

1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. None
5. Four

Answer: (2) Two; Qureshi and Xavi are children of Priya

Directions (Q 7-Q8).Â  Read the information given below carefully and answer the following questions:

Five friends A, B, C, D and E travelled from Tamil Nadu to five different states Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Punjab by 5 different modes of transport: Cycle, Bus, Train, Truck, and Bike. The one who travelled to Rajasthan did not travel by Bike. C went to Karnataka by Truck and B went to Maharashtra by Train. D travelled by Bike and E travelled by Bus. Tamil Nadu is not connected by Cycle to Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Q 7. What means of Transport did C use?

1. Bus
2. Cycle
3. Train
4. Truck
5. Bike

 A Punjab Cycle B Maharashtra Train C Karnataka Truck D Uttar Pradesh Bike E Rajasthan Bus

Q 8. Which state did E travel to?

1. Rajasthan
2. Maharashtra
3. Karnataka
5. Punjab

 A Punjab Cycle B Maharashtra Train C Karnataka Truck D Uttar Pradesh Bike E Rajasthan Bus

Directions (Q9-Q10):Â Read the information given below and answer the following questions:

Pankaj, Qasif, Rajat, Supriya, Tina, Uttkarsh, Vartika, Waseem and Zoya are sitting around a circle facing at the centre. Rajat is third to the right of Zoya who is second to the right of Pankaj. Supriya is not an immediate neighbour of Zoya and Rajat. Tina is third to the left of Supriya. Qasif is third to the right of Waseem who is not an immediate neighbour of Supriya. Vartika is not a neighbour of Zoya.

Q 9.Â How many people are sitting between Waseem and Supriya (counted clockwise from Supriya)?

1. One
2. Four
3. Five
4. Two
5. Three

Q 10.Â Who is sitting 3rd to the right of Vartika?

1. Tina
2. Pankaj
3. Qasif
4. Rajat
5. Zoya

Candidates can refer to the set of questions given above and start their preparation for the upcoming Government exams 2020.

With sectional cut off applicable in a few competitive exams, it is important to ace every section as it will not only reflect in their section-wise marks but also be helpful in the overall scores attained by a candidate.

For any further information regarding these exams, study material or list of books to prepare for the competitive exams, candidates can turn to BYJU’S.

## Frequently Asked Questions on Logical Reasoning

### Q 1. What are logical reasoning questions?

Ans. Logical reasoning questions can be both verbal and non-verbal. Such questions are asked in competitive exams to analyse the reasoning ability of candidates.

### Q 2. What are the topics asked in the logical reasoning section?

Ans. Topics like blood relations, coding-decoding, direction test, seating arrangement, puzzles, input-output, syllogism, alphanumeric series, mirror images, statement and conclusions/argument are included in the logical reasoning syllabus.

### Q 3. How to solve logical reasoning questions?

Ans. Follow the steps below to solve the logical reasoning questions:

• Read the question carefully, line by line
• Note down the important information
• Use pictorial solution in case of confusion
• Opt for shortcuts and tricks, if any
• Analyse if the question can or cannot be solved verbally. This will help save some time

### Q 4. How to prepare logical reasoning for upcoming competitive exams?

Ans. To prepare logical reasoning for upcoming competitive exams, candidates can refer to the following tips:

• Review the syllabus in detail and accordingly start your preparation
• Solve different types of questions based on each topic to strengthen your command over it
• Work on shortcuts and tricks to save time during the final exam
• Focus on Time Management
• Analyse previous year papers to get a list of important topics

1. VEERANJANEYULU

1. Mentor

Hi VEERANJANEYULU,
For NTPC Exam updates you can check RRB NTPC Exam page. For preparation please check RRB NTPC Question papers and RRB NTPC Syllabus

2. haarinibai