Let us consider the randomly shaped body undergoing a rotational motion as shown in the figure. The linear velocity of the particle is related to the angular velocity as shown here. When considering the rotational motion of a rigid body on a fixed axis, the extended body is considered as a system of particles moving in a circle lying on a plane that is perpendicular to the axis, such as the center of rotation lies on the axis.

In this figure, the particle P has been shown to rotate over a fixed axis passing through O. Here, the particle represents a circle on the axis. The radius of the circle is the perpendicular distance between point P and the axis. The angle indicates the angular displacement Î”Î¸ of the given particle at time Î”t. The average angular velocity in the time Î”t is Î”Î¸/Î”t. Since Î”t tends to zero, the ratio Î”Î¸/Î”t reaches a limit which is known as the instantaneous angular velocity dÎ¸/dt. The instantaneous angular velocity is denoted by Ï‰.

From the knowledge of circular motion, we can say that the magnitude of linear velocity of a particle travelling in a circle relates to the angular velocity of the particle Ï‰ by the relation Ï…/Ï‰= r , where r denotes the radius. At any instant, the relation v/ r = Ï‰ applies to every particle that has a rigid body.

If the perpendicular distance of a particle from a fixed axis is r_{i}, the linear velocity at a given instant v is given by the relation,

V_{i} = Ï‰r_{i}

Similarly, we can write the expression for the linear velocity for n different particles comprising the system. From the expression, we can say that for particles lying on the axis, the tangential velocity is zero as the radius is zero. Also, the angular velocity Ï‰ is a vector quantity which is constant for all the particles comprising the motion.

Stay tuned with Byju’s to learn more about the angular velocity and its relation with linear velocity, vector notation and much more.