Electrical Conductors

electrical conductors

Electrical Conductors

If you have to define the meaning of electrical conductors in the simplest way, they are materials that allow electricity to flow through them easily. If we compared two types of material and the first one allows better flow of electricity through it, then that material is said to be a good conductor of electricity.

Some examples of conductors of electricity are

  • Copper
  • Aluminium
  • Silver
  • Gold
  • Graphite
  • Platinum
  • Water
  • People
Conductors are good at allowing the flow of electricity because such materials the ease of flow of charges through them. This is the relative mobility of electrons is much better than other materials. This property of conductors to “conduct” electricity is called conductivity. Such materials offer less opposition or “resistance” to the flow of charges. Conducting materials allow easy charge transfer because of the free movement of electrons through them.

Types of Conductors

  • Metals
Most conducting materials used for practical applications are metals. For example, the wire around your house probably uses copper wires as conducting materials or their alloys. The electric plugs have metal in them, and the internal mechanism of you electric irons also use metals as their conducting material. This is because metals have lots of free electrons and promotes mobility. Some of the best metal conductors are Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu) and Gold (Au).
  • Non – Metals
There are some non – metals which are also very good conductor of electricity. For example, carbon in the form of graphite is a very good conductor of electricity. If you see the structure of graphite, only three of the four carbon atoms are used for bonding. This leaves one electron free for bonding. However, most nonmetals are not good conductors of electricity.
  • Ionic Conductors
Conductors in their solution form are called ionic conductors. For example, salt water is an ionic solution and is a good conductor of electricity.
  • Semiconductors
Although semiconductors are not as good at conducting electricity as conductors, they still have their uses. Examples of semiconductors are Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si).

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Practise This Question

In the following arrangement shown in Fig., the bulb will not glow if the ends A and B are connected with