Ferromagnetism is a physical phenomenon ( long range ordering), in which certain materials like iron strongly attract each other. Ferromagnets occur in rare earth materials and gadolinium. It is one of the common phenomena that is encountered in life that is responsible for magnetism in magnets.  


One of the vital requirement of ferromagnetic material is that ions and atoms should possess permanent magnetic moments. Some of the ions and atoms consist of the permanent magnetic moment that may be considered has a dipole that comprises of north pole separated from a south pole.

Some degree of dipole alignment can be witnessed has there existed a large atomic magnetic moment. This type of magnetic arrangement can be found in some of the elements such as iron, cobalt, nickel and their alloys.

Ferromagnetic Materials

Beneath is a table that states ferromagnetic materials and compounds that exhibit spontaneous magnetization.  

Spontaneous Magnetization ( Curie temperature) Ferromagnetic Materials
69 Euo
292 Gd
88 Dy
1043 Fe
1388 Co
587 MnSb
318 MnAs
627 Ni

Heusler alloy is a ferromagnetic metal alloy where in its constitutions itself is not ferromagnetic whereas stainless steel is a non-magnetic alloy which is completely comprised of ferromagnetic materials. Non – Crystalline ferromagnetic materials are made my expeditious cooling of liquid. They possess very low hysteresis loss, high electrical resistivity, low coercivity and high permeability.


Some of the antiferromagnetism includes ferrous oxide, nickel oxide, chromium and manganese fluoride. In antiferromagnetism, the forces between the adjacent atomic dipoles tend to possess signs opposite to that of ferromagnets. Beneath is a table that provides a Neel temperature of the antiferromagnetic substance.

116K Manganese Oxide
61K Maganese Fluoride
311K Chromium
198K Ferrous Oxide


  • The applications of a ferromagnetic substance are comprehensive. The hysteresis curve plays a vital role and it’s of great importance.
  • Ferromagnetism has its applications in transformers, electromagnets and magnetic tape recording.

Practise This Question

A steady current i flows in a small square loop of wire of side L in a horizontal plane. The loop is now folded about its middle such that half of it lies in a vertical plane. Let μ1 and μ2 respectively denote the magnetic moments due to the current loop before and after folding. Then

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