Types of Motors

Types of Motors

We know there are generally two types of motors, AC motor and DC motor. AC motors are flexible for speed control and demands low power during start. On the other hand, DC motors are widely used due to its initial cost of low power units is less compared to AC and can be easily installed.

Types of AC and DC motors are listed below:

  • Synchronous
  • Asynchronous(Induction)
  • Brushed
  • Brushless

Synchronous Motors

In this kind of motors, the speed remains constant with varying loads and the supply current frequency is synchronized with rotor rotation. That is why this motor helps to drive motors at a constant speed and are used in machines.

Asynchronous(Induction) Motors

This motor works on the principle of electromagnetic induction which is produced from the magnetic field on the rotor. These are classified into two types according to the load capacity:

  • Single-Phase
  • Three-Phase

The single-phase induction motors are used for smaller loads such household appliances

The three-phase induction motors are used in industries application such as conveyor belts, lifting gears etc.

Brushed Motors

These are the traditional variety of DC motors which are used for basic applications where there is a very simple control system. These are used in consumer application and basic industrial application. These are classified into four types:

  • Series Wound
  • Shunt Wound
  • Compound Wound
  • Permanent Magnet

In the series wound DC motors, the rotor winding is connected in series with the field winding. Varying the supply voltage will help in controlling the speed. These are used in lifts, cranes and hoists etc.

In the shunt wound DC motors, the rotor winding is connected in parallel with the field winding. It can deliver higher torque without any reduction in the speed and increases the motor current. Due to its medium level of starting torque along with constant speed, it is used in conveyors, grinders, vacuum cleaners etc

In the compound wound DC motors, the polarity of the shunt winding gets added to that of the series field’s. It has a high starting torque and runs smoothly even if the load varies smoothly. This are used in elevators, circular saws, centrifugal pumps etc.

Permanent magnet as the name suggests are used for precise control and lower torque such as robotics.

Brushless Motors

These motors have simpler design and have higher life span when used in higher applications. This has little maintenance and high efficiency. These types of motors are used in appliances which uses speed and position control such as fans, compressors and pumps.

These were some types of motors, if you wish to know more, download BYJU’S The Learning App


Practise This Question

A column of air extending up to the height of atmosphere and base of area 10 cm × 10 cm was kept above a boy's head. Why didn't he get crushed?