Mixtures are made by mixing two or more compounds that do not chemically combine with each other. The constituents of the Mixtures can be separated by both physical and chemical methods. The composition of different constituents is not the same and differs from each other inconsistently.
Definition: When two or more compounds that do not react chemically are mixed together, they form Mixtures.
Separation of Mixtures Questions with Solutions
Q1: What is the basis of the Separation of Mixtures?
Answer: The constituents of mixtures differ in terms of their physical properties. Hence, the basis of their separation is their physical properties, based on which the physical methods of separation can be applied.
Q2. Write the different methods of Separation of Mixtures.
Answer: There are seven physical methods for the Separation of Mixtures. They are:
1. Separating Funnel
Q3. What is the principle of the Distillation Separation Technique?
Answer: The principle of Separation by Distillation is that different substances have different boiling points. As the mixture is boiled, its constituents boil and convert into vapours at different temperatures. These vapours generated at different temperatures are condensed separately. Hence, in this way, the mixture is separated by Distillation.
Q4. How does the Evaporation Technique separate Mixtures?
Answer: A solid dissolved in a liquid can be separated by boiling off the liquid from the mixture. The vapours of the evaporated liquid can be condensed in a separate beaker to restore the liquid.
Q5. How can the solid-solid mixtures be separated?
Answer: As discussed above, the mixtures can be separated based on their properties. The solid-solid mixtures can be separated by adding a suitable solvent based on their solubilities.
For example, a mixture of sugar and sand can be separated by adding water. As the mixture is stirred in water, the sugar becomes soluble, while the sand remains unchanged. As the solution is passed through a filter paper, sand is left behind, and sugar solution passes through the filter paper. The sugar can be separated from water by evaporation. Therefore, solid-solid mixtures can be separated based on their solubilities by adding a suitable solvent.
Q6. How are the Grains separated from the Chaff?
Answer: The Grains are separated from the Chaff by Winnowing. This process is used by the farmers to separate the lighter husk particles from the heavier seeds of Grains. The method involves the use of large types of machinery.
Q7. Name the different types of mixtures.
Answer: There are two types of mixtures, namely:
1. Homogeneous Mixtures
2. Heterogeneous Mixtures
Q8. Explain what a Method of Separation is and its importance.
Answer: The Method of Separation is a process by which a mixture is separated into two or more elements or compounds. In this process, two or more new substances are formed by which the mixture was formed. Separation Methods have many advantages in our day-to-day life. For example, we keep the air inside our homes clean by filtering out the dust and mites from the air that we breathe. The food that we eat is purified by applying various methods of separation.
Q9. Why is the Separation of Mixtures necessary?
Answer: The Separation of Mixtures is necessary so as to obtain the pure useful compound from the impure useless compounds. The Methods of Separation are mostly incorporated in the big manufacturing firms in order to reduce waste and restore useful materials from the mixtures of compounds received at the end of the manufacturing process.
Q10. Write the names of different Methods of Separation of Mixtures.
Answer: The different methods of Separation of Mixtures include, Chromatography, Distillation, Evaporation, Sublimation, Crystallisation, Adsorption, Absorption, Oxidation, and Filtration.
Q11. The Separation Method that depends on the Volatility of the compound is:
- None of the above
Explanation: The process of Distillation separates the mixture due to the differences in their boiling points. As Distillation is based on the boiling points of the substances to be separated, it depends on the Volatility of the compound.
Q12. The Separation Technique that exploits Electric Charge and Diffusivity is:
- None of the above
Explanation: Electrophoresis is used to separate DNAs, RNAs, and other protein molecules based on their size and electric charges. In Electrophoresis, the constituents are separated based on their electric charge and diffusivity.
Q13. Which of the following methods is suitable to separate the mixture containing the oxygen-rich compounds and the nitrogen-rich compounds?
- None of the above
Explanation: As there is a great difference between the boiling points of Oxygen (-1830 oC) and Nitrogen (-195.8 oC), the mixture can be separated by the Distillation method.
Q14. The Mixture of Oil and Hexane can be separated by:
- Separating Funnel
Explanation: The mixture containing the Oil and Hexane cannot be separated by the Distillation method as this process might harm the properties of the Oil. The mixture can be separated by using the Separating Funnel. This is because Oil and Hexane have huge differences between their Molecular Weights. Therefore, the heavier layer settles down and can be separated using the Separating Funnel.
Q15. How can the mixture of Iron Fillings and Copper Fillings be separated?
Answer: The Mixture containing the Iron Fillings and the Copper Fillings can be separated by using the Magnetic Separation Method, as the two metals have different magnetic properties. An Electronic magnet is hovered on the mixture containing the Iron and the Copper fillings. Iron Filings get separated as they get attracted to the magnet. Copper fillings are left behind and can be separated.
Practice Questions on Separation of Mixtures
Q1. Write a Separation Method that can be used to separate the DNA Fragments from the DNA.
Q2. Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) and Water can be separated by ______.
- Two-step Distillation
- Two-step Crystallisation
Q3. The Extent of Separation does not depend on:
- Radius of Gyration
- Vapour Pressure
Q4. Explain the method Separation by Polymer Membrane.
Q5. Write five characteristics of a Mixture.
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