Charging by induction using a negatively charged object
In this section, we shall learn about the transfer of charge by induction using a negatively charged object. Let us consider two metal spheres A and B touching each other, as shown in the figure. Let us take a negatively charged rubber balloon. If we bring the charged balloon near the spheres, electrons within the two-sphere system will be induced to move away from the balloon due to the repulsion between the electrons of the balloon and the spheres. Subsequently, the electrons from sphere A get transferred to sphere B.The migration of electrons causes the sphere A to become positively charged and the sphere B to be negatively charged. The overall two-sphere system is hence electrically neutral. The spheres are then separated using an insulating cover such as gloves or a stand as shown in the figure (avoiding direct contact with the metal). When we remove the balloon, the charge gets redistributed, spreading throughout the spheres, as shown in the figure.
Charging by induction using a positively charged object
In this section, we shall learn about the transfer of charge through the process of induction using a positively charged object. Taking two spheres A and B, touching each other, as shown in the figure, if we bring a positively charged balloon near sphere A, the electrons from sphere B migrate towards sphere A due to the attraction between opposite charges, thus leaving the sphere B deficit of electrons. As a result, the sphere A gets negatively charged and the sphere B gets positively charged. The spheres are then separated using an insulating cover, a stand or gloves. When the balloon is removed, the charges in sphere A and B redistribute, spreading out evenly.
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