Quantum Physics

We will study about Quantum Physics and Classical physics, Newton’s laws of motion can explain the behavior of macroscopic objects or objects that are at a scale of human interaction and experience, even including astronomical objects. But the classical physics isn’t able to explain the behavior of microscopic objects or objects that are at a scale of an atom.

Dual Behavior of Matter:

This is mainly because the behavior of macroscopic object is practically particle in nature, they do have wave nature but it is negligible because of their huge masses; whereas on the other hand the atomic level particles have very less mass and hence both particle and wave nature is prevalent in them. This dual behavior of displaying both particle and wave nature is known as dual behavior of matter and for every particle, the particle nature comes from its mass and the wave nature comes from its matter wave defined by De-Broglie relationship which is given by,

λ = \( \frac {h}{mv}\)

Where,

λ = wavelength of the matter

h = plank’s constant

m = mass of the matter

v = velocity of matter

Quantum Physics

Classical physics hasn’t been able to explain the dual behavior of a matter and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, according to which the position and momentum of a sub-atomic particle can be calculated simultaneously with some degree of inaccuracy. Hence, there was a need of new theory that could explain the behavior of atomic and sub-atomic particles.

So, this led to the birth of quantum physics – It is a branch of science that explains the physical phenomenon by microscopic and atomic approach and takes into account the dual behavior of matter. It is theoretical physics and it specifies the laws of motion that the microscopic objects obey. When quantum mechanics is applied to macroscopic objects (for which wave like properties are insignificant) the results are same as those from the classical mechanics.


Quantum Physics - Dual Nature of Matter

What is the Dual Nature of Matter?

We will study about Quantum Physics and Classical physics, based on Newton’s laws of motion which can explain the behavior of macroscopic objects or objects that are on a scale of human interaction and experience, even including astronomical objects. But classical physics isn’t able to explain the behavior of microscopic objects or objects that are at a scale of an atom.

This is mainly because the behavior of a macroscopic object is a practical particle in nature, they do have wave nature but it is negligible because of their huge masses; whereas on the other hand the atomic level particles have very less mass and hence both particle and wave nature is prevalent in them. This dual behavior of displaying both particle and wave nature is known as dual nature of matter and for every particle, the particle nature comes from its mass and the wave nature comes from its matter wave defined by the de-Broglie equation.

De Broglie equation:

λ = \( \frac {h}{mv}\)

Where,
λ = wavelength of the matter
h = plank’s constant
m = mass of the matter
v = velocity of matter

Quantum Physics - Dual Nature of Matter

Quantum Physics & Dual Nature of Matter

Classical physics hasn’t been able to explain the dual behavior of a matter and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, according to which the position and momentum of a sub-atomic particle can be calculated simultaneously with some degree of inaccuracy. Hence, there was a need for the new theory that could explain the behavior of atomic and sub-atomic particles.

What is quantum physics?

So, this led to the birth of quantum physics – It is a branch of science that explains the physical phenomenon by the microscopic and atomic approach and takes into account the dual behavior of matter. It is theoretical physics and it specifies the laws of motion that the microscopic objects obey. When quantum mechanics is applied to macroscopic objects (for which wave-like properties are insignificant) the results are the same as those from the classical mechanics.

For more information on the topic, download Byju’s The Learning App.’


Practise This Question