Over the years we have observed how technology has managed to squeeze itself to more compact and concise structure. For instance, the first computers that were made, were the size of a warehouse of 1000 laptops which we use today. How has this been made possible? Integrated circuit is the answer to it.
The circuits that were made previously were large and bulky, consisting of circuit components as resistor, capacitor, inductor, transistor, diodes, etc. which were connected together with copper wires. This factor limited the use of the circuits to big machines. It was not possible to create small and compact appliances with these big circuits. Moreover, they were not entirely shock proof and reliable.
As it is said, necessity is the mother of all inventions. There was a need to develop circuits of smaller size with more power and safety to incorporate them into devices. Three American scientists invented transistors which simplified things to quite an extent, but it was the development of integrated circuits which actually changed the face of the electronics technology.
What is an Integrated Circuit( IC )?
An integrated circuit is a small chip of a semiconductor material which mounts an entire circuit on itself. It is very small when compared to the standard circuits which are made of the independent circuit components, about the size of a fingernail. Currently, the most commonly used one is the monolithic integrated circuit.
Integrated circuits are used in almost every electronic appliance or equipment that we see or use today like mobiles, televisions, computers and even toys.
Types of Integrated Circuit:
Integrated circuits can be categorised into two types based on the nature of the input signals:
- Linear or analogue ICs: They have continuously variable input, in the form of analogue signals. The output signal is a linear function of the input. They are broadly used in radio-frequency and audio-frequency amplifiers.
Digital ICs: They have digital inputs, which are defined for two levels, not for a continuous range of values. They consist of logic gates with input signals as 0 (low state) or 1 (high state). They are used in computers.
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