Properties of Fluids

To understand the different properties of fluids,we have to first understand what exactly is meant by the term fluids. By definition, anything that can flow is a fluid. The water we drink, the air we breathe are all examples of fluids. Essentially, all liquids and gases are fluids. There are mainly three properties of fluids. Kinematic, Thermodynamic and Physical properties.

Properties of fluids

Since fluids are, like solids, also a form of matter, they have certain properties. The study of the properties of fluids in fluid mechanics helps us to utilize them for useful purposes.

Different Properties Of Fluids

Though each fluid is different from others in terms of composition and specific qualities, there are some properties which every fluid share.

These properties can be broadly categorized under:

  • Kinematic properties such as velocity and acceleration.
  • Thermodynamic properties of fluids such as density, temperature, internal energy, pressure, specific volume and specific weight.
  • Physical properties of fluidssuch as appearance, colour and odour.

Here we will look into some of the basic properties of fluids.

Density

The density of a fluid is its mass per unit volume. It is the ratio between the two.

  • Unit of Density of fluids is kg/m3.
  • The formula for deriving density is: \(\frac{Mass}{Volume}\)

The density is dependent on a number of factors such as pressure, temperature and its chemical combination. Impact of temperature, pressure are noticeable.

Fluid

Density (g/mL)

Hydrogen

0.00009

Helium

0.0002

Air

0.003

Oxygen

0.0014

Carbon dioxide

0.002

Ethyl alcohol

0.79

Machine oil

0.9

Water

1.00

Seawater

1.03

Glycerol

1.26

Mercury

13.55

Temperature

The property of fluids that determines the state of hotness or coldness of it. Temperature is measured in either Kelvin or Celsius or Fahrenheit. Kelvin is the most common one that is used because of its independence from the properties of the substance. The following graph clearly depicts the effect of temperature on fluids.

effect of temperature on fluids

Pressure

The pressure of a fluid is the force applied by it per unit area.

  • Pressure is denoted by the letter ‘p’
  • Calculated by formula \(\frac{Force}{Area}\).
  • Its unit is N/m2.

Specific Volume

In fluid mechanics, specific volume is the reciprocal of density. It can be expressed as the volume that a fluid occupies per unit mass.

  • Specific volume is denoted by the letter ‘v’
  • Calculated by formula \(\frac{Volume}{Mass}\).
  • Its unit is m3/kg.

Practice Questions On Properties Of Fluids

Q1: What is fluid?

Ans: Anything that has the property to flow categories as fluid.

Q2: What are the types of matter enfolded under fluids.

Ans: Liquids and gases are enfolded under fluids

Q3: Give an example for fluids.
Ans: Examples of fluids are Water, Oxygen, Molten lava, etc.

Q4: Name the properties of fluids.

Ans: There are three properties of fluids. Namely, Kinematic, Thermodynamic and Physical properties.

Q5: Name the Kinetic property of a fluid?

Ans: Kinematic properties such as the velocity and the acceleration.

Q6: Name the Thermodynamic property of a fluid?

Ans: Thermodynamic properties of fluids such as density, temperature, internal energy, pressure, specific volume and specific weight.

Q7: Name the Physical property of a fluid?

Ans: Physical properties of fluidssuch as appearance, color, and odor.

Q8: Arrange the following terms in the ascending order of their density.

Water, Carbon dioxide, Air, Seawater

Ans: Carbon dioxide< Air< Water< Seawater

Q9: Define the specific volume.
Ans: Specific volume is expressed as the volume that a fluid occupies per unit mass.

Q10: What is the relation between specific volume and density?

Ans: Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

Hope you have got a brief knowledge of Fluids, Properties of fluids, parameters affecting the properties of fluids, etc. For a better understanding of thermodynamics do read the related articles and answer the practice questions.

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