Lithium Hydroxide - LiOH

What is Lithium hydroxide?

Lithium hydroxide is formed when lithium reacts with water in a test tube produce lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The chemical formula for lithium hydroxide is LiOH. Lithium-ion picks up the hydrogen ion which becomes hydrogen atoms. Two hydrogen atoms form a molecule of hydrogen gas. The negative hydroxide ion left behind combines with lithium to make lithium hydroxide.

LiOH Lithium hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide Density 1.46 g/cm³
Lithium hydroxide Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass 23.95 g/mol
Lithium hydroxide Boiling Point 924°C
Lithium hydroxide Melting Point 462 °C
Lithium hydroxide Chemical Formula LiOH

Structure of Lithium hydroxide – LiOH

The structure of lithium consists of a lithium ion, an oxygen atom, and a hydrogen atom. The below image represents the lithium hydroxide structure.

Lithium hydroxide structure

Structure of Lithium hydroxide

Physical Properties of Lithium hydroxide – LiOH

The table below is a list of physical properties of lithium hydroxide:

Odor Odorless
Appearance Hygroscopic white solid
Heat capacity 2.071 J/g⋅K
Conjugate base‎ Lithium monoxide anion
Solubility Soluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol.

Chemical Properties of Lithium hydroxide – LiOH

Some of the chemical properties of lithium hydroxide are:

    • Lithium hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid resulting in the formation of lithium sulfate and water. It is a type of double displacement reaction.

2LiOH + H2SO4 → LiSO4 + 2H2O

    • Lithium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide forms lithium carbonate and water. It is a type of exothermic reaction.

2LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O

Uses of Lithium hydroxide – LiOH

The major lithium hydroxide uses have been discussed below:

  • Lithium hydroxide is used to absorb unwanted gas. A shuttle astronaut replaces the canisters in the carbon dioxide scrubbers onboard a space shuttle. The scrubbers use lithium hydroxide to remove carbon dioxide from the air inside the spacecraft.
  • Used in the preparation of lithium salts of fatty acids means lithium soaps with mineral oil and other additives used to make lithium based greases.
  • A principle use is it is used as a starting material for numerous other lithium chemicals such as lithium fluoride, lithium chloride, lithium bromide, and lithium iodide.

Frequently asked questions

Mention the elements present in lithium hydroxide.

Lithium, oxygen, and hydrogen.

How carbon dioxide is removed by LiOH?

LiOH is used as a sorbent to absorb the carbon dioxide in the space shuttle.

Name the scientist who discovered LiOH.

Johann August Arfvedson in the year 1817.

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