Lithium Hydroxide - LiOH

What is Lithium hydroxide?

Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiOH. Lithium hydroxide can exist in a hydrated form as well as in an anhydrous form and both forms of lithium hydroxide are white hygroscopic solids. LiOH is a weak alkali metal but is a strong base at the same time.”

Lithium hydroxide can be produced by carrying a reaction of lithium with water in a test tube along with the formation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. During this reaction, lithium-ion picks up the hydrogen ion which later on becomes hydrogen atoms. Then the two hydrogen atoms form a molecule of hydrogen gas. The negative hydroxide ion left behind combines with lithium to make lithium hydroxide.

The most important use of lithium is in rechargeable batteries for mobile phones, laptops, digital cameras and electric vehicles.
Lithium is also used in some non-rechargeable batteries for things like heart pacemakers, toys and clocks.

LiOH Lithium hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide Density 1.46 g/cm³
Lithium hydroxide Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass 23.95 g/mol
Lithium hydroxide Boiling Point 924 °C
Lithium hydroxide Melting Point 462 °C
Lithium hydroxide Chemical Formula LiOH

Table of Contents

Structure of Lithium hydroxide – LiOH

The structure of lithium consists of a lithium-ion, an oxygen atom, and a hydrogen atom. The structure of Lithium hydroxide is shown as below:

Lithium Hydroxide LiOH

Physical Properties of Lithium hydroxide – LiOH

The table below is a list of physical properties of lithium hydroxide:

Odour Odourless
Appearance Hygroscopic white solid
Heat capacity 2.071 J/g⋅K
Conjugate base‎ Lithium monoxide anion
Solubility Soluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol.

Chemical Properties of Lithium hydroxide – LiOH

Some of the chemical properties of lithium hydroxide are:

    • Lithium hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid resulting in the formation of lithium sulphate and water. It is a type of double displacement reaction.

2LiOH + H2SO4 → LiSO4 + 2H2O

    • Lithium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide to form lithium carbonate and water. It is a type of exothermic reaction.

2LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O

Uses of Lithium hydroxide – LiOH

The major uses of lithium hydroxide have been discussed below:

  • Lithium hydroxide is used to absorb unwanted gas. The scrubbers use lithium hydroxide to remove carbon dioxide from the air inside the spacecraft.
  • Used in the preparation of lithium salts of fatty acids means lithium soaps with mineral oil and other additives used to make lithium-based greases.
  • Its principal use is it is used as a starting material for numerous other lithium chemicals such as lithium fluoride, lithium chloride, lithium bromide, and lithium iodide.

Frequently Asked Questions

Mention the elements present in lithium hydroxide.

Lithium, oxygen, and hydrogen.

How is carbon dioxide removed by LiOH?

LiOH is used as a sorbent to absorb the carbon dioxide in the space shuttle.

Name the scientist who discovered LiOH.

Johann August Arfvedson in the year 1817.

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