Periodic Table classifies the elements in several ways. You have already learned about the s-, p-, d- and f- block elements. In this article, we will discuss another broad classification of elements – metals and non-metals. The classification is largely based on the chemical properties which is common among the divisions. We will also talk about a third category of elements, called the metalloids.
- 78% of known elements are metals.
- They take up the left side of the Periodic Table.
- At room temperature, they are usually solids (except mercury).
- They usually have high boiling and melting points.
- They are shiny having metallic lustre.
- They are good conductors of heat and electricity.
- They are malleable, that is, they can be hammered into thin sheets.
- They are ductile, that is, they can be drawn into wires.
- All the metals tend to lose electrons easily.
- They occupy the right hand side of the Periodic Table.
- Most non-metals are brittle and are not malleable or ductile.
- At room temperature, they are usually solids or gases.
- They usually have low boiling and melting points (except carbon and boron).
- They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
- They are usually less dense when compared to metals.
- They tend to gain electrons during chemical reactions.
- Metalloids exhibit some properties of metals as well as of non-metals. Hence, they are also known as semi-metals.
- Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium are the most commonly recognised metalloids.
- These elements run diagonally across the Periodic Table.
- They may have metallic or dull appearance.
- They are usually brittle and are fair conductors of electricity.
- They may gain or lose electrons during chemical reactions.
- They form alloys with metals.
- They are used as catalysts, biological agents, flame retardants, alloys and semiconductors in industries due to their unique properties
There is a lot more there is to understand about metals, non-metals and metalloids with the help of NCERT solutions. Byju’s brings you NCERT solutions for metals and non-metals. For reference click here – Metals and Non-Metals