Metals, Non-metals and Metalloids


Periodic Table classifies the elements in several ways. You have already learned about the s-, p-, d- and f- block elements. In this article, we will discuss another broad classification of elements – metals and non-metals. The classification is largely based on the chemical properties which is common among the divisions. We will also talk about a third category of elements, called the metalloids.

Metals

Metals

  • 78% of known elements are metals.
  • They take up the left side of the Periodic Table.
  • At room temperature, they are usually solids (except mercury).
  • They usually have high boiling and melting points.
  • They are shiny having metallic lustre.
  • They are good conductors of heat and electricity.
  • They are malleable, that is, they can be hammered into thin sheets.
  • They are ductile, that is, they can be drawn into wires.
  • All the metals tend to lose electrons easily.

Non-metals

metalloids

 

  • They occupy the right hand side of the Periodic Table.
  • Most non-metals are brittle and are not malleable or ductile.
  • At room temperature, they are usually solids or gases.
  • They usually have low boiling and melting points (except carbon and boron).
  • They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
  • They are usually less dense when compared to metals.
  • They tend to gain electrons during chemical reactions.

Metalloids

metalloids

  • Metalloids exhibit some properties of metals as well as of non-metals. Hence, they are also known as semi-metals.
  • Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium are the most commonly recognised metalloids.
  • These elements run diagonally across the Periodic Table.
  • They may have metallic or dull appearance.
  • They are usually brittle and are fair conductors of electricity.
  • They may gain or lose electrons during chemical reactions.
  • They form alloys with metals.
  • They are used as catalysts, biological agents, flame retardants, alloys and semiconductors in industries due to their unique properties

There is a lot more there is to understand about metals, non-metals and metalloids with the help of NCERT solutions. Byju’s brings you NCERT solutions for metals and non-metals. For reference click here – Metals and Non-Metals


Practise This Question

An atom with high electron affinity generally has