Metals, Non-metals and Metalloids

 

Periodic Table classifies the elements in several ways. You have already learned about the s-, p-, d- and f- block elements. In this article, we will discuss another broad classification of elements – metals and non-metals. The classification is largely based on the chemical properties which is common among the divisions. We will also talk about a third category of elements, called the metalloids.

Metals

Metals

  • 78% of known elements are metals.
  • They take up the left side of the Periodic Table.
  • At room temperature, they are usually solids (except mercury).
  • They usually have high boiling and melting points.
  • They are shiny having metallic lustre.
  • They are good conductors of heat and electricity.
  • They are malleable, that is, they can be hammered into thin sheets.
  • They are ductile, that is, they can be drawn into wires.
  • All the metals tend to lose electrons easily.

Non-metals

metalloids

 

  • They occupy the right hand side of the Periodic Table.
  • Most non-metals are brittle and are not malleable or ductile.
  • At room temperature, they are usually solids or gases.
  • They usually have low boiling and melting points (except carbon and boron).
  • They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
  • They are usually less dense when compared to metals.
  • They tend to gain electrons during chemical reactions.

Metalloids

metalloids

  • Metalloids exhibit some properties of metals as well as of non-metals. Hence, they are also known as semi-metals.
  • Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium are the most commonly recognised metalloids.
  • These elements run diagonally across the Periodic Table.
  • They may have metallic or dull appearance.
  • They are usually brittle and are fair conductors of electricity.
  • They may gain or lose electrons during chemical reactions.
  • They form alloys with metals.
  • They are used as catalysts, biological agents, flame retardants, alloys and semiconductors in industries due to their unique properties

There is a lot more there is to understand about metals, non-metals and metalloids with the help of NCERT solutions. Byju’s brings you NCERT solutions for metals and non-metals. For reference click here – Metals and Non-Metals


Practise This Question

Fluorine has the highest electronegativity among the ns2 np5 group on the Pauling scale, but the electron affinity of fluorine is less than that of chlorine because-