Unsaturated solutions are those solutions which contain less amount of solute in them than that of the actual amount of solvent which can be dissolved. If more amount of solutes in a solution, then that solution will be considered as saturated. Every combination of solute and solvent has a limit, and moreover once after reaching that limit, the substance is said to be in a specific state called as saturation point.
We might be familiar that, two or more substances are mixed in order to form a mixture. There are various kinds of mixtures found in our surroundings such as table salt mixed in water, vinegar solution, sugar dissolved in water, etc.
Based on this distribution of components, the mixtures can also be classified as heterogeneous mixtures and homogeneous mixtures. In a mixture, when the components are found evenly distributed within the mixture, then such a solution is called as the homogeneous mixture.
For formation of the solution, we need to add a solute within a solvent. Initially, the solute dissolves in a solvent and thus makes a uniform solution. Such a solution where solutes dissolve is called as unsaturated solutions.
Basically, A solution comprises particles, solutes, and also the solvent. The solvent is a part of the solution which is usually liquid, but it can also be a gas sometimes. In fact, in most of the cases, water remains as a solvent. Thus water is also called to as universal solvent.
Unsaturated solutions have the ability to dissolve more solute in them until they reach the saturation point. After reaching the saturation point, solutes will no more get dissolved in the solvent and these are the unsaturated solutions. Hence, all the solutions are said to be mostly unsaturated in nature and finally get converted to a saturated solution by adding solute in them.
We come across various examples of these unsaturated solutions in daily life. Some examples of these are given below-
- Salt dissolved in water or even sugar dissolved in water is an unsaturated solution, if in case they dissolve more amount of solute in them.
- The iced coffee and tea coffee is one more example of the unsaturated solution. Each of the solutes possesses different solubility rules and also solutes dissolve in the solvent, those solutions will be considered as unsaturated solutions. Tea and the sugar solution is a good example of unsaturated solution due to the reason that they dissolve more amount of sugar in them. Once such solutions reach the saturation point, they get converted to the saturated solution.
- The gaseous solutions have gas as the solvent and the solute can either be in a solid state, liquid state or even gaseous state. Air, smoke, and mist are also the good examples for gaseous solutions.
So In an unsaturated solution, the concentration of solute is much lower than its solubility equilibrium. Each solute will have a limit with respect to the specific solvent. Therefore, solutes show a certain value for solubility in the solvent.