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Compressive Stress

What is Compressive Stress?

Compressive stress is the force that is responsible for the deformation of the material such that the volume of the material reduces. It is the stress experienced by a material which leads to a smaller volume. High compressive stress leads to failure of the material due to tension.

Compressive stress is the stress on materials that leads to a smaller volume.

When compressive stress is applied to the brittle materials, these materials fracture as there is a sudden release of the stored energy. When the compressive stress is applied to the ductile materials, they compress, and there is no failure.

There are three ways to deform a solid with the help of external force:

  1. When a solid body is stretched by applying two equal forces normal to the cross-sectional area, the resistive force developed per unit area is known as tensile stress
  2. When a solid body is compressed, restoring force is developed due to an externally applied force. That restoring force per unit cross-sectional area is known as compressive stress.
  3. When a solid body is exposed to two equal and opposite forces parallel to the cross-sectional area, the tangential force that is developed per unit area is known as tangential or shearing stress.

Unit of Compressive Stress:

The SI unit of compressive stress is Pascal (Pa) or Nm-2.

Formula:

Its mathematical representation is given below:

\(\begin{array}{l}\sigma =\frac{F}{A}\end{array} \)

Where,

  • σ is the compressive stress
  • F is the compressive force
  • A is the unit area

Dimension:

Its dimensional formula is [ML-1T-2].

What is Compressive Strength?

Compressive strength is defined as the maximum compressive stress that is experienced by the material before its breakdown. It is obtained by dividing the maximum load by the cross-sectional area of the material.

Compressive strength is comparatively higher than the tensile strength for both ductile and brittle materials. Compressive strength resists compression, whereas tensile strength resists tension.

You may also want to check out these topics given below!

Difference between Tensile Stress and Compressive Stress

Tensile stress Compressive stress
Tensile stress results in elongation of the material Compressive stress results in the shortening of the material
Tensile stress is due to the application of an external stretching force Compressive stress is due to the application of external compressive force

Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

What is Stress?

Stress is defined as the measure of restoring force developed in a body per unit area.

What is the nature of the restoring force?

The restoring force is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to deforming force or external force.

What is the direction of the deforming force in the case of longitudinal stress?

The deforming force is perpendicular to the area of the cross-section.

Define tangential or shear stress.

When the direction of the deforming force or external force is parallel to the cross-sectional area, the stress experienced by the object is called shearing stress or tangential stress.

What does tangential stress do to an object?

Tangential stress results in a change in the shape of the object.
Test Your Knowledge On Compressive Stress!

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