Science is the intellectual and practical activity comprised of the systematic study of the structure and behavior of every natural and physical objects and phenomena through observation and experiment. In simple terms, Science is knowledge of the nature.
Basic Science can be subdivided into three types –
Natural sciences – The study of material world
Social sciences – The study of people and societies
Formal sciences – Like Mathematics
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, in both natural sciences and social science. A scientist is a person who studies science in a systematic way to acquire knowledge to further describe the natural world in a scientific method. The term ‘Scientist’ was first coined by William Whewell in 19th century.
Earlier, advice and knowledge used to flow in the medium of oral tradition from generation to generation. For example there are evidences that even before the development of writing system, the cultivation of maize was domesticated.
Scientific revolution brought a change in ancient thought and classical physics. Nicolaus Copernicus re-modeled the heliocentric model of the solar system described by Aristarchus of Samos. Johannes Kepler developed the very first model of planetary motion in the early 17th century, which suggested that the planets follow elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse.
Galileo, who is also known as the Father of Modern Physics, also contributed to this revolution by validating physical theories through his experiments. This theories became the prime factor of a scientific method. William Gilbert, with various experiments with magnetism and electricity established that the Earth itself is magnetic. Scientific revolution enhanced the growth of knowledge and by the end of 20th century, the practice of this subject became professionalized and institutionalized.
Gradually subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Astronomy, Biology, medicine and genetics, Ecology & Social sciences etc evolved.