Radiation Detector or particle detector is a device that measure this ionization of beta radiation, gamma radiations and alpha radiation with matter which create electrons and positively charged ions.
Radiation Detector is a instrument used to detect or identify high-energy particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
Earlier, photographic plates were used to identify tracks left by nuclear interactions. Sub-nuclear particles are discovered by using cloud chambers which needed photographic recordings and a tedious measurement of tracks from the photographs.
Electronic detectors developed with the invention of the transistor. Modern detectors use calorimeters to measure the energy of the detected radiation. They may also be used to measure other attributes such as momentum, spin, charge etc. of the particles.
Type of Detectors:
When excited by ionizing radiation, a scintillator exhibits scintillation which is nothing but the property of luminescence. When a scintillator is coupled to an electronic light sensor such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT), photodiode, or silicon photomultiplier, a scintillator detector. Scintillator-type detectors first converts light into electrical pulses. They use vacuum tubes to perform so.
Gaseous Ionization Detectors:
A radiation detection instrument used in particle physics to detect the presence of ionising particles, and in radiation protection applications to measure ionizing radiation is called Gaseous ionization detectors.
Geiger-Mueller counter, commonly called the Geiger counter is the most commonly used detector. A central wire in between a gas-filled tube at high voltage is used to collect the ionization produced by incident radiation. Although it cannot distinguish between them, it can detect alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
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