What are Carbenes?
Carbene is a molecule having two unshared valence electrons and a neutral carbon atom with a valence of two. Depending on their electrical structure, carbenes are classed as singlets or triplets.
Depending on their electrical structure, carbenes are classed as singlets or triplets. Although persistent carbenes are known, most carbenes have a brief life span. Cl2C:, or dichlorocarbene, is a well-studied carbene that can be made in situ from chloroform and a strong base. A carbene is a molecule having two unshared valence electrons and a neutral carbon atom with a valence of two. R-(C:)-R’ or R=C: is the generic formula. Depending on their electrical structure, carbenes are classed as singlets or triplets.
Table of Contents
- Carbene Definition
- Singlet and Triplet Carbenes
- Generation of Carbenes
- Frequently Asked Questions – FAQS
Carbenes are neutral substances with just six valence electrons on the carbon atom.
Carbenes are a highly reactive group of compounds. Carbenes are divalent compounds with two valence electrons distributed between two nonbonding orbitals and a carbon atom covalently bound to two other groups. The carbene is a singlet when the two electrons are spin-paired, and a triplet when the spins of the electrons are parallel.
Carbenes with three carbon atoms are paramagnetic. Triplet methylene has a bond angle of 135-150o, while singlet methylene has a bond angle of 100-110o. In the gaseous form, triplet carbenes are more stable, but singlet carbenes are more common in aqueous medium.
Singlet and Triplet Carbenes
A carbene is a divalent carbon atom with two electrons that are not shared with any other atoms. The carbene is called a singlet carbene when the two electrons have opposite spins, and a triplet carbene when they have parallel spins. A singlet carbene has a pair of electrons in a single orbital in its ground state, whereas a triplet carbene has two unpaired electrons in distinct orbitals. The terms singlet and triplet come from the field of spectroscopy.
Triplet carbenes have 8 kcal/mol (33 kJ/mol) lower energy than singlet carbenes for simple hydrocarbons (see also Hund’s law of maximum multiplicity), hence triplet is the more stable state (the ground state), and singlet is the excited state species. The singlet state can be stabilised by substituents that can donate electron pairs by delocalizing the pair into an empty p-orbital. The energy of the singlet state can be lowered to the point where it becomes the ground state. There are currently no feasible solutions for triplet stabilisation.
Generation of Carbenes
Carbenes are most often made from diazoalkanes using photolytic, thermal, or transition metal-catalysed methods. Rhodium and copper are commonly used in catalysts. In aprotic solvents, the Bamford-Stevens reaction produces carbenes, while in protic solvents, carbenium ions.
1. Carbenes from diazo compounds
When diazomethane is heated, nitrogen gas is released, resulting in the formation of carbene. Carbene precursors are commonly made from diazo compounds. Historically, catalysts such as dirhodium, copper, and iron were utilised to breakdown diazo compounds and produce the essential metal carbene intermediates. Gold catalysts have recently been created as a novel form of metal catalyst for the decomposition of diazo compounds.
2. Carbenes formation by α-elimination
Elimination (eliminations in which both the proton and the leaving group are on the same atom) follows an E1cB-elimination process. A carbanion is formed when a strong base removes an acidic proton close to an electron withdrawing group. A carbene is formed when a leaving group from a carbanion is removed.
In the presence of a strong base, the carbene is sometimes produced through an unique “alpha”-elimination. Alkyllithium reagents, such as CH3Li, are commonly used as strong bases, however KOH can also be used with some compounds.
Frequently Asked Questions on Carbene
What are carbenes used for?
Carbenes are made up of unusual carbon atoms and are usually unstable in nature. They attach themselves to metals to form metal-carbene complexes that serve as efficient catalysts used widely in the pharmaceutical industry.
How are carbenes formed?
The formation of carbenes by way of electrically charged, or ionic, intermediates is exemplified by the reaction of chloroform with a strong base, potassium tert-butoxide. In the first step of this reaction, a proton or hydrogen ion (H+) is removed from the chloroform molecule in a normal acid–base reaction.
What are some examples of carbenes?
Carbenes are classified as either singlets or triplets, depending upon their electronic structure. Most carbenes are very short lived, although persistent carbenes are known. One well-studied carbene is dichlorocarbene Cl2C:, which can be generated in situ from chloroform and a strong base.
What are singlet & triplet carbenes?
A carbene is a neutral divalent carbon species containing two electrons that are not shared with other atoms. In the ground state, a singlet carbene has a pair of electrons in a single orbital, whereas the triplet has two unpaired electrons, each occupying a separate orbital.
What is a carbene transfer reaction?
Carbene transfer reactions are very important transformations in organic synthesis, allowing the generation of structurally challenging products by catalysed cyclopropanation, cyclopropanation, carbene C-H, N-H, O-H, S-H, and Si-H insertion, and olefination of carbonyl compounds.