# Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was one of the key thinkers who did exploration and examination of theories of relativity. In this article, let us know more about Albert Einstein’s inventions. He was the person who gave new dimensions to see energy, time, space and matter.

Albert Einstein was born on 14 March in the year 1879 in Württemberg, Germany. He was educated at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. Einstein was a theoretical physicist who discovered and invented major theories of Physics. Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science and philosophy. He got the Fellowships of all the leading scientific academies in the world. His works were recognized across the world and in 1921, Einstein won the prestigious Nobel Prize for Physics for his significant work on the photoelectric effect. Let us dig into Albert Einstein’s inventions.

Some inventions and contributions of Einstein are Avogadro’s Number, Quantum Theory of Light, General Theory of Relativity, Special Theory of Relativity, The Photoelectric Effect, Wave-Particle Duality, Brownian movement, the relationship between mass and energy, Bose-Einstein Condensate, and many more.

Avogadro’s number is a concept in chemistry that defines that the number of units in one mole of a substance is equal to 6.022140857×1023

The Avogadro constant is named after the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro. It is the proportionality factor defined by Albert Einstein to relate the number of constituent particles like molecules, ions, and atoms in a sample with the amount of substance in that sample. The numeric value of the Avogadro constant is expressed as the reciprocal of mole.

When Einstein was working on Brownian motion to explain the erratic movement of particles in a fluid, he came up with an expression for the quantity of Avogadro’s number in terms of measurable quantities. This leads to a path to determine the mass of an atom, or the molar mass for each element on the periodic table. Albert Einstein presented a new way of calculating Avogadro’s number and the size of molecules.

### Brownian Movement

The Brownian movement is one of the significant contributions of Albert Einstein. While studying the molecular theory of liquids, he tried to explain the motion of particles through Brownian motion. This theory explains the random movement of particles in a fluid or gas. Einstein explained the zigzag movement of particles in suspension, and this study aimed to prove the existence of molecules and atoms in particles.

### Quantum Theory of Light

Einstein was the key person behind the quantum theory of light. He proposed and explained that light consists of packets of energy known as photons in 1905. He gave the physical interpretation to Planck’s mathematics when he proposed that electromagnetic radiation itself is granular, consisting of quanta with an energy hf. He also explained the emission of electrons from metals when hit with large electric pulses, like lightning.

### Special Theory of Relativity

The Special Theory of Relativity is also known as special relativity. It is a theory regarding the relationship between time and space. This theory is based on two postulates.

• The laws of physics are the same for all, irrespective of the velocity of the observer.
• The speed of light is always constant, regardless of the motion of the light source or the motion of the observer.

This theory is one of the reasons to explain the origin of the most famous equation E=mc2

When we hear the mass and energy relationship equation E=mc2, we remember the great scientist Einstein instantaneously.

### Photoelectric Effect

In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed this theory, which is the base of modern Physics. It is the phenomenon that occurs when the material absorbs electromagnetic radiations and electrically charged particles are released from or within it. In this process, electrons are emitted from the metal plate when light falls on it. The emitted electrons are known as photoelectrons.
The below video is an explanation of the basics of the photoelectric effect:

### Wave-Particle Duality

Einstein explained that light consists of photons, which are considered packets of energy. This concept was explained and demonstrated in the quantum theory of light. Einstein stressed that light should be treated as both a wave and a particle. He explained that photons in light can behave both as particles and waves at the same time. This concept is known as wave-particle duality. Through a two-slit apparatus experiment, he proved the dual nature of light.

### General Theory of Relativity

The general theory of relativity generalizes the concepts of Special Relativity, Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, describing gravity as a property of space and time. It is the geometric theory of gravitation, published in the year 1915. The General Theory of Relativity is also known as General relativity. The general theory of relativity gives the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

### Bose-Einstein Condensate

The great Indian physicist and mathematician Satyendra Nath Bose with Albert Einstein developed the concept, which helped to understand light as a gas. The Bose-Einstein concept proposed and demonstrated that when atoms are cooled very close to absolute zero, they hardly move in relation to one another. These atoms form clusters or clumps and enter into the same energy states. Hence, they concluded that the group of atoms behaves and display the characteristics of a single atom.

Einstein is not only celebrated for his inventions, but for his outstanding contributions of theories, on which modern science stands today. Hope you learnt about some of Albert Einstein inventions.

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## Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

Q1

### In which year Einstein was awarded the Nobel prize?

In 1921, Einstein won the Nobel Prize for Physics for his significant work on the photoelectric effect.

Q2

### Name five major contributions of Albert Einstein?

The following are the contributions of Albert Einstein:

• Brownian Movement
• Quantum Theory of Light
• Special Theory of Relativity
• Photoelectric Effect
Q3

### When was Einstein born?

Albert Einstein was born in the year 1879, on 14 March in Württemberg, Germany.
Q4

### What are photoelectrons

Electrons are emitted from the metal plate when light falls on it. The emitted electrons are referred to as photoelectrons.
Q5